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QUINAULT AREA



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BEAR CAMP SHELTER spacer ENCHANTED VALLEY CHALET spacer GRAVES CREEK RANGER STATION RESIDENCE


KISTNER HOUSE spacer NORTH FORK QUINAULT GUARD STATION spacer NORTH FORK QUINAULT GUARD STATION BARN


RENEGADE SHELTER AND LOW DIVIDE CHALET spacer QUINAULT HISTORY spacer THREE LAKES SHELTER


TRAPPER SHELTER



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ENCHANTED VALLEY CHALET



Click on photo to enlarge



Enchanted Valley Chalet Setting spacer Enchanted Valley



From "http://www.hscl.cr.nps.gov/insidenps/summary.asp"

Constructed in 193O-31, the Enchanted Valley Chalet was built by the Olympic Recreation Company, one of two private investment companies that sought to develop the recreational potential of the interior Olympic Mountains. Beginning in 1926, five Olson brothers (who later incorporated as the Olympic Recreation Company) from Quinault Lake, vied with the Hoquiam/Aberdeen-based Olympic Chalet Company for Forest Service approval to develop the North Fork Quinault River drainage. Initial disapproval by the Forest Service prompted the Olympic Recreation Company to turn their attention to the main fork of the Quinault River, where the Forest Service later granted the Olson brothers permission to establish two guest lodges. One at the mouth of Graves Creek (on the Quinault River) and the other near the headwaters of the main fork of the Quinault, thirteen miles from the end of a road. Construction of the Graves Inn began in 1929. One year later, the Enchanted Valley Chalet was initiated. Several residents of the southern Olympic Peninsula contributed to the completion of the chalet. Elvin Olson supervised the construction of the log structure and packed materials such as bricks, mortar, and equipment by horse over the thirteen-mile trail. Tom E. Criswell, assisted by his son, Glenn, built the two-story building, and Tom Criswell fashioned much of the furniture. The Knack Manufacturing Co. of Hoquiam, Washington produced the window frames. In 1934, Ignar and Herbert Olson devised a special sled for transporting a bathtub to the remote building. For the next decade the Enchanted Valley Chalet was a much-advertised and favored destination point, or stopping place, for numerous individual and groups of hiking and horse parties that ventured into the southern Olympics. Despite the national economic Depression, which severely debilitated recreational pursuits throughout the US, the chalet survived. In 1943, in the midst of World War II, the chalet was closed to the public and established briefly as an Aircraft Warning Service outpost. In 1951, the National Park Service purchased the holdings of the Olympic Recreation Company. Two years later the chalet was reopened for public use. Limited maintenance allowed deterioration and vandalism to take its toll on the structure. In the early 1980s the second floor of the building was closed to the public. During the summers of 1983 and 1984 the Park Service cooperated with Olympians hiking club of Hoquiam/Aberdeen to stabilize and rehabilitate the chalet. Rectangular in shape it measures approx. 28' x 41'. It has 2 1/2 stories of log wall construction with logs hewn on one side. Diagonal-cut dovetail corner joints join the logs. It has a gable roof sheathed with cedar shakes. There is gable roof wall dormer on south door with pole purlins and supporting braces at gable ends. There is a concrete foundation. The windows are 3-over-l and 6-over-l, double-hung sash windows with plain board trim and narrow, projecting sills. It has a shed roof porch roof (east wall) and gable roof porch (north wall), supported by diagonal pole braces above ground floor doorways. The interior has T & G flooring on 1st, 2nd, and attic floors. There are 3 rooms on 1st floor, including kitchen, bedroom (ranger station) and large living room. There are 6 sleeping rooms on 2nd floor with T & G wall partitions; plank wall seats and peeled pole ceiling joists; simple newel post at base of 2nd floor stairs. 1 large room in attic with exposed peeled pole roof rafters. Alterations included gable roof and shed roof porches on north and east elevations added. It is located in large, grassy meadow.

SIGNIFICANCE

The Enchanted Valley Chalet is eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places. This two-story, hewn log structure is significant historically for its association with the recreational development of the "wild" and remote interior of the Olympic Mountains. It is unique in that it is one of only two public resort structures that was built and has remarried distant from road access: this fact epitomizes the wilderness theme for which the chalet was promoted and operated. In 1984, the chalet is the only structure originally built as a public resort that remains standing in the interior Olympics. Architecturally, the chalet is an excellent example of a log cabin building type, and it displays skilled craftsmanship and possesses high artistic value. It is the only known log structure of its size and scale on the Olympic Peninsula today.

Put your cursor over the pictures for a caption. Click on photos to see enlarged photo.



Enchanted Valley Chalet
Photographed just after its completion in 1931, the Enchanted Valley Chalet was one of only two private resort structures built in the interior of the Olympic Mountains. (Photo by A. Curtis, courtesy of Washington State Historical Society)
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Graves Creek Inn around 1932 (Photo from Geo Bob's collection)


Enchanted Valley Chalet - 2004 spacer Enchanted Valley Chalet - 2004 spacer Enchanted Valley Chalet

Photo 1 and 2 are from RodF on NWHikers.net and taken during 2004.
Photo 3 is from HJT on NWHikers.net and taken during 1992 - 2005.

Enchanted Valley Chalet - 1980's spacer Enchanted Valley Workshop - 1938

Photo 1 and 2 are from RodF on NWHikers.net and taken during 1980's and 1938.

ENCHANTED VALLEY CHALET 1989
Enchanted Valley Chalet - 1989
Posted by RodF on NWHikers.net
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Enchanted Valley Chalet - 1991
Posted by RodF on NWHikers.net


Enchanted Valley Chalet and Mt. Anderson spacer Enchanted Valley Chalet - Photo by F. Shipley


Enchanted Valley Chalet Details

Details of corners of chalet where logs fit together



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Aerial photos by Lotus54 from NWHikers.net


Before you criticize someone, you should walk a mile in their shoes. That way, when you criticize them you're a mile away and you have their shoes.


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NORTH FORK QUINAULT GUARD STATION



Click on photo to enlarge




North Fork Quinault Guard Station spacer North Fork Quinault Guard Station


From Historic Resource Study 1983 Olympic National Park
From "Historic Building Inventory Olympic National Park Washington" by Gail E. H. Evans

The Forest Service around 1934 constructed the North Fork Quinault Guard Station Residence. Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) labor may have contributed to its completion. The residence was among five buildings built at this guard station by 1940: a woodshed, garage, barn, and powerhouse completed the ensemble. A five-acre fenced pasture adjoined the guard station on the north. Completion of the powerhouse (non-extant in 1984) is definitely the work of the CCC in 1939-1940. This building ensemble is on land added to Olympic National Park in 1940. This structure is one of numerous administrative buildings constructed by the U.S. Forest Service on the Olympic Peninsula. Beginning in 1905 the Forest Service gained jurisdiction of nearly 1.5 million acres of prime timberland on the peninsula, then included in the Olympic Forest Reserve. During the next thirty-three years, a network of administrative structures facilitating the forest rangers and guards (seasonal assistants) in patrolling this immense territory evolved. Ranger stations, usually erected at more accessible front country sites, and guard stations, typically built at back country locations only reached by trail, played an important role in the Forest Service's efforts to pursue its multiple resource land use policy. Before 1911 only a few ranger and guard stations were built (including Storm King, Interrorem, and Louella). But as the ranks of forest personnel swelled, and trails were built into the rugged interior, more stations were added. Often these ranger and guard stations consisted of living/sleeping quarters, a fire cache, a tool/wood shed, a shelter, and sometimes a horse barn and corral. With the arrival of the CCC on the peninsula in the 1930s, Forest Service administered lands witnessed a great boom in fire prevention and recreation development. The construction of Forest Service ranger and guard stations reached epoch proportions. By the end of the 1930s no fewer than twelve ranger stations and nearly thirty guard stations stood in existence on the Olympic Peninsula. Many of these 1930s Forest Service built administrative buildings embodied physical characteristics reflecting the Rustic Style, a style that advocated employing designs, materials, and sitings that were closely integrated with the surrounding landscape. The pine tree symbol, identified with both the Forest Service and the CCC became widely used during the 1930s. With the creation of Olympic National Park in 1938 and the gradual introduction of air surveillance in fire management following World War II, ranger and guard station construction subsided. More recently many existing structures have been demolished. In 1984 only four Forest Service ranger stations and eight guard stations are extant on the Olympic Peninsula. The North Fork Quinault Guard Station is one of five guard stations now standing in Olympic National Park. Rectangular in shape with small rear addition; measures 16' x 30'; 1 1/2 stories; wood frame wall construction with wood shingle siding and corner boards. It has a steeply pitched gable roof; gable roof porch on main facade; shed roof near addition; all with exposed rafters and sheathed with wood shakes; poured concrete foundation; 6-over-6, double-hung sash windows with wide, plain surrounds; central door on main facade framed by window openings. Alterations: possible grassy meadow, approx. 20' from garage/storage building.

SIGNIFICANCE

The three building ensembles at the North Fork Quinault Guard Station are eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places. Historically, it represents an important period of great growth and development of the Forest Service on the Olympic Peninsula in the 1930s. Three of the original five buildings in the guard station ensemble are presently standing and in nearly unaltered condition. Although the nearby pasture has diminished in size, remnants of the corral still exist. The buildings individually, and the site as a whole, possess considerable integrity of location, design, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling, and association. The North Fork Quinault Guard Station building group is one of only two Forest Service guard stations dating from the boom period of the 1930s on the Olympic Peninsula that meets the National Register criteria.



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RENEGADE SHELTER AND LOW DIVIDE CHALET



Click on photo to enlarge




Low Divide Chalet - 1
By the mid 1930s, the Low Divide Chalet was complimented with a "bath house" (later used as a seasonal Park Service ranger station) and two or three small cabins (not visible in this photograph.) (Photo by N. Mortiboy, courtesy of Olympic National Park)
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Sunlight streamed through the windows of the Low Divide Chaleet in 1927, soon after the bulding was constructed. A snow avalanche destroyed the main lodge building in the mid 1940s. (Courtesy of Olympic National Forest)


Low Divide Chalet - 1
Low Divide Chalet around 1932 (Photo from Geo Bob's collection)
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Low Divide Chalet around 1932 (Photo from Geo Bob's collection)


Low Divide Chalet - 1932 spacer Low Divide Horse Barn - 1982 spacer Low Divide Ranger Station - 1993

Photo 1 (Chalet) is from RodF on NWHikers.net and taken during 1932.
Photos 2 (Horse Barn) and 3 (Ranger Station) are from RodF on NWHikers.net and taken during 1993.

Low Divide Shelter - 1982 spacer Low Divide Shelter - 1993 spacer Low Divide Bath House - 1970 spacer Low Divide Shelter - 1993

Photo 1 (Shelter) is from Tinman on NWHikers.net and taken during 1982.
Photo 2 (Shelter) is from RodF on NWHikers.net and taken during 1993.
Photo 3 (Bath House) is from Lotus54 on NWHikers.net and taken during 1970.
Photo 4 (Shelter) is from Asahel Curtis and takes during 1936

LOW DIVIDE MEADOW
Low Divide Meadow
Posted by RodF on NWHikers.net
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Low Divide Chalet
Posted by RodF on NWHikers.net
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Low Divide Chalet - Unkown Date
Posted by RodF on NWHikers.net
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Low Divide Chalet - Unknown Date
Posted by RodF on NWHikers.net


Renegade Shelter spacer Low Divide Guard Station


From "Historic Building Inventory Olympic National Park Washington" by Gail E. H. Evans

Constructed during World War II around 1942, the Renegade Shelter at Low Divide was erected after the creation of Olympic National Park, and post dates the Forest Service's active decade of shelter building in the late 1920s and 1930s. The U.S. Forest Service, who had jurisdiction over much of the area now included in Olympic National Park from 1905 to 1930, initiated shelter construction in the late 1920s and the 1930s. Shelter construction coincided with a period of active trail construction by the Forest Service. Shelters were at first intended for use by crews building and maintaining trails and laying telephone lines for fire protection purposes. As part of the Forest Service's multiple land use management policy, trails and shelters served to encourage backcountry recreational use in the interior Olympics. In the 1930s, CCC corpsmen under the supervision of the Forest Service, accelerated shelter and trail construction activity. By the late 1930s nearly 90 shelters stood on the Olympic Peninsula. The greatest abundance of shelters built in the 1930s occurred on the north and east facing slopes of the Olympic Range. During this initial period of construction, shelters were built primarily in lowland valleys along major rivers and creeks, and sited at locations where the fishing and scenery was attractive. In some instances (particularly along the Bogachlel River), shelters supplanted or augmented existing ranger or guard stations, or were constructed at existing popular hunting or fishing "camps" (especially along the Elwha River). Typically, shelters stood from three to five miles apart on established trails. Architecturally, these Forest Service built shelters dating from the 1930s were made from local materials obtained from the building site, were constructed of peeled-pole or split- cedar lumber sheathed with cedar shakes, and were capped with gable or shed, cedar-shake roofs. Shelters were three-sided, and roomy enough to provide several people protection from the inclement weather typical on the peninsula. Significant numbers of the late 1920s and 1930s Forest Service-type shelters were taken down in the mid 1970s, and in 1984 fewer than twenty remain standing. Square in shape; measures 14' x 14'; 1 story; peeled-pole wall construction; board and batten siding; open on one side; gable roof sheathed with shakes; exposed, peeled log rafters and purlins; (building materials - alpine fir and Alaskan cedar); stacked, rock foundation; no windows or doors; milled wood floor; 4 bunk beds and wood table and benches. Alterations: reconstructed in mid-1970s; exterior walls sided with wood shakes originally; wood floor constructed after 1952. Siting: high elevation meadow encircled by rugged, sharply rising peaks.

SIGNIFICANCE

The Renegade Shelter is ineligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places. The structure is less than fifty years old, being constructed in the early 1940s. In addition, there is considerable loss of physical integrity since board and batten siding replaced the original cedar shake walls, and work crews constructed a wood floor. In the late 1950s and again in the mid-1970s. Thus, the structure lacks integrity of materials, workmanship, and some design.

LOW DIVIDE CHALET

From R. P. Brown in NWHikers.net discusssion page on ONP Shelters.

Here's a reference I found for the Low Divide Chalet. It's from a book Exploring Washinton's Past: A Roadmap to History. I'm on a computer at work (that doesn't work) so I'll just post what it says and I quote,

"As early as 1929 the Olympic Chalet Company, owners of the developments proposed a landing field for planes at the Low Divide, beside the chalet, and also considered damming an alpine lake to create a big enough body of water for seaplanes to land. The Great Depression bankrupted the company and an avalanche destroyed the chalet"

The article went further to state that later, in 1931 the Olson Brothers of Quinault built the Enchanted Valley. So, the Low Divide Chalet was first.

Pretty amazing huh? I'm pretty sure I read the same thing on a plaque many years ago probably near the Low Divide. So, think about the type of planes that would be utilized in 1929...maybe Ford Trimotors, various monocoupes, Curtis Aircraft etc. That was long before Cubs came along. They're obviously talking about damming up Mary or Margaret Lake. The Low Divide is a huge, broad saddle so having a landing strip up there isn't inconceivable .

HJT, by logs in the outlet of Sundown I mean they are sawed at both ends, with notches cut (used for a cabin) and large spikes sticking out. I think the Park Service probably burnt a little of the shelter and tossed the rest in the lake.

Another note from R. P. Brown.

I stayed (actually slept in) the Lower Cameron shelter on two occasions. Once around 1974 (I was just a little kid) and again around 1984. It was very clean as far as shelters go with a gravel floor and pole-style bunk beds. I think it's the only shelter I've ever slept in. I remember the Upper Cameron shelter in 1974 but it was gone in 1984. As I recall (don't quote me on this) it was just slightly upstream from where the Grand Pass trail intersects the Cameron trail.

The Belview shelter was hit by an avalanche. I remember seeing it in the 1970's and it was listing pretty bad then. There was also a shelter at Sundown but the Park Service tore it down. You can still see the logs from it in the outlet of the lake.

I'm almost positive the Low Divide Chalet was hit by an avalanche (that came down from Mt. Seattle) not too long after it was built. I remember reading somewhere about a pack service that packed people in there and there was a bed & breakfast style operation for a while.


The new shelter will not be put into place. One or more groups opposed the new shelters for both Low Divide and Home Sweet Home.

CLICK HERE TO READ THE VARIOUS COURT DOCUMENTS GENERATED IN THE FIGHT AGAINST THE NEW SHELTER


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QUINAULT HISTORY





HISTORIC RESOURCE STUDY
Olympic National Park
Washington
By Gail H. E. Evans Author
T. Allan Comp Project Supervisor

Quinault River Drainage. Settlers in the upper Quinault (earlier spelled Quinaielt) Valley faced problems similar to those encountered elsewhere in the interior west side of the Olympic Peninsula: isolation from the outside world, thick, dense forests and underbrush along the river bottom and long months of heavy precipitation. With headwaters on the southeastern slopes of the Olympic range, the main branch of the Quinault and its north fork descends through terrain described by the Dodwell-Rixon survey party as "very rugged and mountainous." Before arriving at the four- and one-half mile long Quinault Lake, the wending path of the river forms a broad level valley primarily of bench land (U.S. Department of the Interior 1902, 47, 39). From the southwestern end of Quinault Lake the river continues for more than twenty-five miles before emptying into the Pacific Ocean. In addition to geographic and climatic constraints, a 220 acre swath of land, taking in much of the lower Quinault River drainage extending from the ocean to and including the lake itself, as well as a portion of land on the southwestern end of Quinault Lake, were very early set aside as the Quinault Indian Reservation and thus closed to homesteading by white settlers.

In 1885 the daughter of Captain Willoughby, government agent for the Quinault District, and her two friends, were possibly the first white women to see Quinault Lake (Aberdeen Daily World 1966, 27 January; 3, 11, 19, 25 February; 5 March). Settlement, however, of the interior upper Quinault River Valley, like other interior river valleys on the Olympic Peninsula, did not begin until the late 1880s. The three earliest known settlers arrived in 1888 and claimed land at the northeast end of the lake and on bottom land about two miles northeast of the lake. (J. N. Locke located in Sec. 9, Frank Ziegler in Sec. 16 and John H. Lock in Sec. 11, all in T. 23 N., R. 9 W.) Ziegler Creek, emptying into Lake Quinault on the northeast, is presumably named for pioneering settler Frank Ziegler. By the end of 1890, nineteen others had settled in the Quinault Valley northeast of the lake and at the north and east end of Quinault Lake. This community of early Quinault settlers included those whose names appear on present-day maps of the area, such as Antone Kestner (Kestner Creek), A. R. Merriman (Merriman Creek and Merriman Falls) and a Mr. Gatton (Gatton Creek). Others among this original group of settlers were Martha Hitchins, John and Albert Pruce, Don and James Peterson, Mr. Chestney, John Stanfield, Mr. Stamey, and Mr. Howe, John Knox, Neal McCarty, Joseph Norwood, J. A. Ewell, A. V. Higley, H. Moore and Elsie White (NARS:RG 49 1908, 11 March).

In late 1889 and 1890 three separate expeditions set out to cross the Olympic Mountains and explore its inner reaches. Just as the Elwha River Valley was selected as the entry to the mountainous interior, the Quinault Valley was often the route of exit. In late November 1889, the exploring team of C. A. and S. C. Gilman descended into the Quinault Valley after a three month hike across the rugged eastern section of the Olympics. At Quinault they counted around thirty-one settlers (Sunday Oregonian 1890, 25 May). Five months later the Press party expedition, beginning in the Elwha River Valley, knew their trans-Olympic trek was nearly over when they discovered a vacant trapper's cabin below the juncture of the Quinault and the North Fork Quinault Riversthe "first sign of civilized man for many months." About eight miles above Quinault Lake, they encountered "a settler!" The "settler" was actually a hunter by the name of F S. Antrim. Although his residence was in Aberdeen, he did have a stock of supplies cached at a settler's cabin located where the Quinault River flows into the lake. Further down the river, yet above Quinault Lake, the party passed two more uninhabited log cabins. Expedition member Charles Barnes described the buildings and their siting: "The claims on which they are located are valuable ones. The mountains are more than half a mile from the river there. The houses are mere travesties on houses, are absolutely uninhabitable, being put together merely to enable the claimant to hold the land" (Wood 1967, 189-90, 193, 195). After finally reaching Quinault Lake, the Press party members apparently made no record of the numbers or locations of settlers in the area, but certainly there were several by 1890. Lieutenant Joseph O'Neil, arriving in the Quinault Valley in the fall of 1890 after leading an expedition party through much of the southern half of the Olympic Mountains, observed that "the Quinault valley from the junction [of the main branch and the north fork] is well adapted for agriculture. It is fertile bottom land, about 3 miles in width" (U.S. Congress 1896, 10). During O'Neil's brief stay at Quinault Lake, he mentioned that he and his party were the guests of a Mr. McCalla (U.S. Congress 1896, 10) (possibly living south of Quinault Lake in the vicinity of McCalla Creek). From the accounts left by members of these three exploring expeditions, it is apparent that existing public records of white occupation of the upper Quinault Valley are not entirely complete. In addition to, and perhaps even prior to, the establishment of actual settlement claims, hunters, trappers, squatters and short-term claimants traveled and lived in the upper Quinault Valley.

Known homestead claimants continued to arrive in the broad upper Quinault Valley and around the shoreline of the eastern half of the lake during the 1890s. Between 1891 and 1900, over thirty new settlers (several with families) arrived in the upper Quinault Valley. (Many details about the early Quinault settlers are recorded in Lucile Horr Cleland's Trails and Trails of the Pioneers of the Olympic Peninsula, 1973.) Wright Canyon, Higley Creek, McCormick Creek and Haas Creek denote the general location of the homesites of A. T. Wright, Orte L. Higley, W. J. McCormick and Louis and Joseph Haas, respectively, who were among this slightly later group of Quinault settlers. While more infill occurred on the river bottom lands at the northeast end of the lake, new arrivals also took up land further up the river. By 1900, small acreages of cleared, slashed, cultivated and fenced land may have extended from the lake to the junction of the Quinault River and the North Fork Quinault, approximately ten miles upriver from Quinault Lake NARS:RG 49 1908, 11 March).

In August 1906 U.S. Deputy Surveyor John R. Renland noted the presence of several settlers in T. 24 N., R. 8 W. located about five miles above Quinault Lake. Renland wrote:

The region along the Quinault River is well settled. John A. Olson has a well improved farm in sections 29 and 32. He has good improvements, consisting of a large barn, house, and many small buildings. He has good fences and 20 or 30 acres in clover. Mr. Olson has lived on this place for over 20 years and has a large family. There is a school house in sec. 29, about 10 chs NE of the 1/4 sec. cor. on the line bet sec. 29 and 32. A man by the name of J. Bunch has a home in secs. 27 and 28. He has several acres in clover and raises cattle. Christine Hanson has a house and a few acres cleared in sec. 30. Hannah Wilson also is located in sec. 30. John Gibson has a cabin in sec. 33. James Peterson has a good farm, in sec. 32 (DNR Maps and Surveys).

Bordering the north side of the main branch Quinault River, down river from the Bunch Creek Bridge, a long, narrow, cleared strip of land dotted with orchard trees at one end remains as one of the most conspicuous evidences of early settlement above Quinault Lake and inside the Park. This is the remnant homestead acreage Bunch family.

Subsistence farming was the primary pursuit of settlers with the ambition of permanent occupancy. After initially constructing a house, settlers immediately turned to clearing, slashing and cultivating the land. Early surveyors reported that bottom and bench land had abundant rich black loam alluvial soil, well adapted to agriculture. Quinault settlers planted good-sized fields of grain, clover and hay for grazing, as well as smaller parcels of vegetables (DNR Maps and Surveys). Within twenty years of initial settlement, cultivated fields ranged in size from three to thirty acres. Several settlers planted small orchards. Both cleared and cultivated acres were fenced. Nearly every homestead had one or more barns. Antone Kestner erected three barns on his property along Kestner Creek one mile northeast of Quinault Lake; one, measuring 54 x 112 feet, was among the largest in the valley. Sheds, shops, root houses and other outbuildings typified these early homestead farm units. Alfred V. Higley, located near the northernmost tip of Quinault Lake, along with Antone Kestner, had two of the most well-developed complexes of farm buildings (NARS:RG 49 1908, 11 March).

The difficulties of making a living from even the fertile soil of the upper Quinault River were insurmountable for some, as they were for many along the interior river valleys of the Olympic Peninsula. Cut off from the outside world, transportation along the river and lakeshore and to the Pacific Ocean was initially limited to primitive trails and canoe. The tenure of many early settlers was short. Often, however, they were replaced with ambitious new arrivals.

The community of residents in the upper Quinault showed strong signs of continued development and future prosperity as early as 1890. In that year land speculator Dr. Owen G. Chase organized a group of Hoquiam businessmen and others to form the Quinault Township Company. A narrow strip of land along the entire south side of the lake was bought and divided into lots for sale. Dr. Chase was appointed the first postmaster of the Quinault township in 1891, but soon turned the job over to Alfred V. Higley. During the first year as acting assistant postmaster, Alfred Higley and his son Orte, kept a store and opened the first hotel on Quinault Lake. (A year later the hotel closed, however, when the Higleys moved from the Quinault Townsite to the north shore of the lake.) The two Higleys were also involved in providing Quinault residents with a regular freighting service that plied the waters of the Quinault Lake and River. Access to the community was markedly improved when Alfred Higley organized settlers to cut a trail from Quinault to the townsite of Humptulips, eighteen miles to the south. (From there an existing primitive road connected Humptulips to the town of Hoquiam.) By 1914, a puncheon road (split wood planks laid side-by-side across the road grade) on the path of the earlier trail was completed (Aberdeen Daily World 1966, 27 January; 3, 11, 19, 25 February; 5 March; Higley 1973, 182-83).

Split rail fences contained this ranch near the head of Quinault Lake, as photographed around the turn-of-the-century. (From the U.S. Department of the Interior, 1902, Dodwell-Rixon report, courtesy Olympic National Park)


As the Quinault community developed in the 1890s and early 1900s, the settlers' reliance on neighboring cities to the south lessened as they worked to bring needed services to the upper Quinault Valley. In 1892 the first school was built with donated labor and and stood about one mile east of the lake on Ziegler Creek. (A larger school was erected near the earlier log schoolhouse in 1900.) In 1897 a second school was constructed east of the lake on the banks of the Quinault River. An important service was provided to local residents when Alfred Higley was appointed a U.S. land commissioner. Higley was also the keeper of law and order in the community, serving as deputy sheriff and, later, justice of the peace (Aberdeen Daily World 1966, 27 January; 3, 11, 19, 25 February; 5 March; Cleland 1973, 243-44).

The robust spirit of development in the upper Quinault Valley was subdued when the area was included in the Olympic Forest Reserve in 1897. The initial onrush of new settlers to the area was a phenomenon not repeated after the late 1890s. In a 1908 letter written by Quinault settler and U.S. Commissioner John A. Ewell, to the secretary of the Interior asking for the removal of the Quinault area from the reserve, Ewell noted that only three settlers arrived after the creation of the Reserve in 1897 (NARS:RG 49 1908, 11 March). Although permits were issued for some new construction after 1910, it appears that the upper Quinault River Valley's major building boom had ended by then, and with it the era of settlement. Today, no settlement structures remain on publicly owned land in the Quinault subdistrict of Olympic National Park.


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GRAVES CREEK RANGER STATION RESIDENCE



Click on photo to enlarge




Graves Creek Ranger Station Residence - 1 spacer Graves Creek Ranger Station Residence - 2


From "Historic Building Inventory Olympic National Park Washington" by Gail E. H. Evans

Graves Creek Ranger Station Residence was constructed in 1939 and 1940 with the assistance of Public Works Administration funding and Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) labor. Beginning in 1939 the area for the new ranger station was stacked and construction begun. Within the next few months the CCC transported materials for the construction of the building. Near the end of the actual construction of the building, the CCC completed the water supply and the sewage disposal systems, and landscaped the grounds around the-ranger station. The CCC was also responsible for the construction of the combination garage/wood shed building, the generator house, and for roadside cleanup and campground development in the vicinity of the ranger station. The three structures at the Graves Creek Ranger Station were among the first administrative buildings constructed under the auspices of the National Park Service after the 1938 creation of Olympic National Park. The National Park Service actively participated in land management on the Olympic Peninsula beginning in 1938 with the creation of the 682 thousand acre Olympic National Park. Subsequent land acquisitions by the National Park Service in 1940, 1943, and 1953, expanded the size of the initial land-locked interior core of the park, and added nearly the entire length of the Queets River and a narrow strip along the Pacific Coast. Much of the new Olympic National Park was carved from land previously administered by the U.S. Forest Service. The shift in land management philosophy and administrative policies from the Forest Service to the Park Service was reflected in the quantity, location, and design of these respective agency's administrative structures. In 1938, the Park Service inherited scores of Forest Service-built ranger and guard stations standing inside the new park boundary. Many were taken over and utilized; others were demolished over time. In a few instances the Park Service erected new administrative structures at sites with existing but deteriorating buildings. In some instances the Park Service established new administrative sites. Early in the park's history, in addition to a cadre of new buildings that formed the Park Service headquarters in Port Angeles, the Park Service constructed four new ranger station buildings, and one already-existing group of buildings was converted to a park ranger station.

Rectangular in shape; measures 25' x 23'; 1 story; wood-frame wall construction sheathed with cedar shakes; gable roof with cedar shakes; field stone with mortar foundation; 2-over-2, double-hung sash windows; enclosed porch on north elevation. Alterations: enclosure of porch on north elevation, perhaps more recent; building originally unpainted.

Setting: It is in a clearing on Graves Creek Road.

SIGNIFICANCE

The Graves Ranger Station Residence is presently ineligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places. The building is less than fifty years old. Along with the National Park Service headquarters at Port Angeles that was constructed between 1940 and 1944, the Graves Creek Ranger Station Residence and combination Garage/Wood shed were among the first administrative buildings constructed by the Park Service in the newly created Olympic National Park, and may be deemed eligible for the National Register in 1990-1991.


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NORTH FORK QUINAULT GUARD STATION BARN



Click on photo to enlarge




North Fork Quinaultt Guard Station Barn


From "Historic Building Inventory Olympic National Park Washington" by Gail E. H. Evans

The Forest Service around 1934 constructed the North Fork Quinault Guard Station Barn. As originally built, the barn was comprised of eight horse stalls, a grain room, and sleeping quarters. Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) labor may have contributed to its completion. The barn was among five buildings built at this guard station by 1940: a residence, garage, wood shed, and a powerhouse completed the ensemble. A five-acre fenced pasture adjoined the guard station on the north. The completion of the powerhouse (non-extant in 1984) is definitely the work of the CCC in 1939-1940. This building ensemble was on land added to Olympic National Park in 1940. This structure is one of numerous administrative buildings constructed by the U.S. Forest Service on the Olympic Peninsula. Beginning in 1905 the Forest Service gained jurisdiction of nearly 1.5 million acres of prime timberland on the peninsula, then included in the Olympic Forest Reserve. During the next thirty-three years, a network of administrative structures facilitating the forest rangers and guards (seasonal assistants) in patrolling this immense territory, evolved. Ranger stations, usually erected at more accessible front country sites, and guard stations, typically built at back country locations only reached by trail, played an important role in the Forest Service's efforts to pursue its multiple resource land use policy. Before 1911 only a few ranger and guard stations were built (including Storm King, Interrorem, and Louella). But as the ranks of forest personnel swelled, and trails were built into the rugged interior, more stations were added. Often these ranger and guard stations consisted of living/sleeping quarters, a fire cache, and a tool/wood shed, a shelter/ and sometimes a horse barn and corral. With the arrival of the CCC on the peninsula in the 1930s, Forest Service-administered lands witnessed a great boom in fire prevention and recreation development. The construction of Forest Service ranger and guard stations reached epoch proportions. By the end of the 1930s no fewer than twelve ranger stations and nearly thirty guard stations stood in existence on the Olympic Peninsula. Many of these 1930s Forest Service-built administrative buildings embodied physical characteristics reflecting the Rustic Style, a style that advocated employing designs, materials, and sitings that were closely integrated with the surrounding landscape. The pine tree symbol, identified with both the Forest Service and the CCC, became widely used during the 1930s. With the creation of Olympic National Park in 1938 and the gradual introduction of air surveillance in fire management following World War II, ranger and guard station construction subsided. More recently many existing structures have been demolished. In 1984 only four Forest Service ranger stations and eight guard stations are extant on the Olympic Peninsula. The North Fork Quinault Guard Station is one of five guard stations now standing in Olympic National Park.

Rectangular in shape; measures 26' x 42f; 1 story; wood-frame wall construction sheathed with channel drop siding and corner boards; south gable end sided with wood shakes; steeply pitched gable with exposed rafters and wood shake covering; post and pier foundation under residence quarters; dirt floor in barn section; 6-over-6, double-hung sash windows with plain board surrounds in residence section; multi-panel wood door on south elevation into residence section; north portion of building open walled, containing animal stalls. Alterations: two open bays sheathed with horizontal boards.

Setting: located in small meadow at end of North Fork Road. Hitching post and outhouses are nearby.

SIGNIFICANCE

The three-building ensemble at the North Fork Quinault Guard Station is eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places. Historically, it represents an important period of great growth and development of the Forest Service on the Olympic Peninsula in the 1930s. Three of the original five buildings in the guard station ensemble are presently standing and in nearly unaltered condition. Although the nearby pasture has diminished in size, remnants of the corral still exist. The buildings individually, and the site as a whole, possess considerable integrity of location, design, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling, and association. The North Fork Quinault Guard Station building group is one of only two Forest Service guard stations dating from the boom period of the 1930s on the Olympic Peninsula that meets the National Register criteria.


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THREE LAKES SHELTER


BEAR CAMP SHELTER
Three Lakes Shelter
Posted by Lotus54 on NWHikers.net and taken Circa 1968 by Bob Dalton.


From "Historic Building Inventory Olympic National Park Washington" by Gail E. H. Evans

Three Lakes Shelter was one of scores of shelters constructed by the U.S. Forest Service on the Olympic Peninsula in the lake 1920s and the 1930s. Unlike many shelters built during that period, Three Lake Shelter was built at a high elevation (on the Skyline Trail) instead of in a lowland valley. The U.S. Forest Service, which had jurisdiction over much of the area now included in Olympic National Park from 1905 to 1933, initiated shelter construction in the late 1920s and the 1930s. Shelter construction coincided with a period of active trail construction by the Forest Service. Shelters were at first intended for use by crews building and maintaining trails and laying telephone lines for fire protection purposes. As part of the Forest Service's multiple land use management policy, trails and shelters served to encourage backcountry recreational use in the interior Olympics. In the 1930s, CCC corpsmen under the supervision of the Forest Service, accelerated shelter and trail construction activity. By the late 1930s nearly 90 shelters stood on the Olympic Peninsula. The greatest abundance of shelters built in the 1930s occurred on the north and east facing slopes of the Olympic Range. During this initial period of construction, shelters were built primarily in lowland valleys along major rivers and creeks, and sited at locations where the fishing and scenery was attractive. In some instances (particularly along the Bogachiel River), shelters supplanted or augmented existing ranger or guard stations, or were constructed at existing popular hunting or fishing "camps" (especially along the Elwha River). Typically, shelters stood from three to five miles apart on established trails. Architecturally, these Forest Service-built shelters dating from the 1930s were made from local materials obtained from the building site, were constructed of peeled-pole or split-cedar lumber sheathed with cedar shakes, and were capped with gable or shed, cedar shake roofs. Shelters were three-sided, and roomy enough to provide several people protection from the inclement weather typical on the peninsula. Significant numbers of the late 1920s and 1930s Forest Service-type shelters were taken down in the mid 1970s, and in 1984 fewer than twenty remain standing. Square in shape; measures 14* x 14'; pole wall construction sided with wood shakes; modified gable roof; open on one side. Alterations: shingles missing on the sidewalls.

Setting: it is in an open meadow.

SIGNIFICANCE

Three Lakes Shelter is not eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places. Although it represents an important period in the history of Forest Service management of Forest Service and National Monument lands on the peninsula, the structure suffers from substantial deterioration; hence there is considerable loss of physical and architectural integrity. The shelter is presently a poor representative example of the type and style of shelter constructed by the Forest Service in the 1930s.


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BEAR CAMP SHELTER



Click on photos to enlarge



Bear Camp Shelter

BEAR CAMP SHELTER
Bear Camp Shelter
Posted by HJT on NWHikers.net and taken between 1992 and 2005
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Bear Camp Shelter - 1996
In September 2007, Bear Camp looked tired but the front roof was straight. So the porch roof pole must have been replaced sometime after these photos, taken by Don Abbott in 1996 and 2004.
Photo posted by RodF on NWHikers.net
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Bear Camp Shelter (1) - 2004
In September 2007, Bear Camp looked tired but the front roof was straight. So the porch roof pole must have been replaced sometime after these photos, taken by Don Abbott in 1996 and 2004.
Photo posted by RodF on NWHikers.net
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Bear Camp Shelter (2) - 2004
Posted by HJT on NWHikers.net and taken between 1992 and 2005


BEAR CAMP SHELTER
Bear Camp Shelter
Posted by HJT on NWHikers.net
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Bear Camp Shelter - 1963
Posted by Ancient Ambler on NWHikers.net
BEAR CAMP SHELTER - 2005
Bear Camp Shelter - 2005
Posted by RodF on NWHikers.net
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Bear Camp Shelter - 2005
Posted by RodF on NWHikers.net


Information from : http://www.hscl.cr.nps.gov/insidenps/summary.asp

The Bear Camp Shelter is individually eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places.

It is the only remaining shelter within Olympic National Park representing the first series of shelters to adopt a standard Adirondack style from published National Park standards. Bear Camp shelter exemplifies the continuing National Park Service commitment to providing recreational trailside shelters at popular backcountry locations. The structure retains integrity of design, location, materials, and workmanship.

 
Physical Event
Begin Year
Begin Year AD/BC
End Year
End Year AD/BC
Designer
Designer Occupation
1. 
Built
1952
AD
1952
AD
National Park Service
Other


 
Structural Component(s)
Material(s)
1. 
Walls
Log
2. 
Roof
Shake


Short Physical Description:

The Bear Camp shelter is a three-sided solid log structure measuring roughly 12’ wide by 16 ‘ deep.

Long Physical Description:

The wall and sill logs average 11” in diameter and rest on individual stone footings. The rear wall was only 4’ 9” in height, while the front opening was six feet, and a ridge of 7. The open end of the side walls were stabilized by a pair of vertical 9” diameter logs, which in turn also supported the front roof purlin. Nine rows of rafters support split fir shake poles for the shake roof.


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KISTNER HOMESTEAD HOUSE



Click on photos to enlarge



KISTNER HOMESTEAD HOUSE


Information from : http://www.hscl.cr.nps.gov/insidenps/summary.asp

Locally significant under criterion A; period of significance 1897-1944.

The Kestner Homestead Site, built 1897, is the oldest surviving settler-built homestead still extant in the Quinault River Valley on the Olympic Peninsula within Olympic National Park. It represents the period of early settlement in the park, a theme important in park history. Several intact homestead districts remain outside of federal lands but few of these retain the original barn or out buildings. At Kestner, three historic outbuildings have survived and the reconstruction of the barn will give scale to the importance and prominence of the barn as part of the homestead district. As a result, the homestead retains the feel of the close assembly of buildings dominated by the barn. The property exhibits cultural landscape integrity, in its overall spatial organization, response to natural features, cluster arrangement, circulation and vegetation patterns, buildings and other structural remains, and materials. It retains integrity of location, setting, design, materials, workmanship (although some of the buildings are in a deteriorated condition), feeling, and association.

 
Physical Event
Begin Year
Begin Year AD/BC
End Year
End Year AD/BC
Designer
Designer Occupation
1. 
Built
1900
AD
1905
AD
Anton Kestner
Other
2. 
Altered
1948
AD


Orlo Higley
Other
3. 
Built
1973
AD
1974
AD
Orlo Higley
Other


 
Structural Component(s)
Material(s)
1. 
Walls
Shingle
2. 
Roof
Shingle
3. 
Framing
Logs


Short Physical Description:

Hewn log construction covered with cedar shingles that flare at base. Steep gabled roof at south end constructed of log rafters covered in cedar shakes. Original cedar log foundation replaced with concrete piers. North addition built of post & beam with board & batten siding. Foundation concrete.

Long Physical Description:

The house, constructed by Antone Kestner ca. 1892 and altered in the 1950s, rests on a concrete, slab-on grade foundation. It is rectangular in shape, one-and-a half stories high, and rustic in appearance. The walls are built of logs hewn on four sides to 6-inch by 6-inch dimensions, and covered by cedar-shake siding. The gabled roof is supported with log rafters and finished with 2-foot x 2-foot cedar shakes. The south, east, and west elevations include several single-pane, aluminum framed windows. The east elevation includes a loggia, which extends from the car-port to the main entrance. The north elevation is obscured by the addition which links the house to a woodshed, used today as a storage space.

Today, the house strongly resembles the historic design in character, despite alterations completed after the historic period. The house resembles the historic design in its scale, massing, and materials. The roofline retains the gabled end on the south side, while the entire structure remains entirely clad in cedar shakes. The most important alteration, however, is the carport addition to the woodshed. This open-air carport addition extends approximately 20-feet from the east elevation of the woodshed. The roof of the carport, a shed addition in appearance, slopes down at a narrow angle, away from the building. The ground plane is surfaced with concrete. The woodshed includes a contemporary garage door; it is painted white (which stands in stark contrast with the faded brown color of the cedar siding) and has three single-paned windows that run horizontally across the top third of the door. Although the roof of the addition is sympathetic to the original structure in materials and architectural lines, the purpose of the addition is a contemporary one. Other alterations include the following the replacement of the historic log foundation with a concrete slab-on-grade treatment. The porch and original main entrance to the house on the south elevation was removed; today, the main entrance is located on the east elevation. The south, east, and west elevations include several single-pane, aluminum framed windows, which were added after the historic period, replacing the original double-hung, multi-paned windows. A contemporary sliding glass door was added between the wood shed and new entrance on the east elevation.


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TRAPPER SHELTER



Click on photos to enlarge



Trapper Shelter - 2003
Trapper Shelter - 2003
Posted by RodF on NWHikers.net
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Trapper Shelter - 2003
Posted by RodF on NWHikers.net
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Trapper Shelter - 2005
Posted by RodF on NWHikers.net
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Trapper Shelter - 2005
Posted by RodF on NWHikers.net
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Trapper Shelter - 2005
Posted by RodF on NWHikers.net
Trapper Shelter - 2005
Trapper Shelter - 2005
Posted by RodF on NWHikers.net
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Trapper Shelter - 2005
Posted by RodF on NWHikers.net
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Trapper Shelter - 2005
Posted by RodF on NWHikers.net
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Trapper Shelter - 2005
Posted by RodF on NWHikers.net
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Trapper Shelter - 2005
Posted by RodF on NWHikers.net
TRAPPER SHELTER - 2005
Trapper Shelter - 2005
Posted by RodF on NWHikers.net
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Trapper Shelter - 2005
Posted by RodF on NWHikers.net
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Trapper Shelter - 1993
Posted by RodF on NWHikers.net and taken in 1993


Information from : http://www.hscl.cr.nps.gov/insidenps/summary.asp

The Trapper Shelter is individually eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places.

It is one of only five remaining shelters within Olympic National Park representing the final program of shelter construction. Trapper shelter exemplifies the continuing National Park Service commitment to providing recreational trailside shelters at popular backcountry locations. The structure retains integrity of design, location, materials, and workmanship.

 
Physical Event
Begin Year
Begin Year AD/BC
End Year
End Year AD/BC
Designer
Designer Occupation
1. 
Built
1963
AD
1963
AD
National Park Service
Other


 
Structural Component(s)
Material(s)
1. 
Walls
Log
2. 
Roof
Shake


Short Physical Description:

The Trapper shelter is a three-sided structure measuring roughly 14 wide by 14 deep.

Long Physical Description:

The wall and sill logs average 11 in diameter and rest on individual stone footings. The rear wall was only 6 x2 in height, while the front opening was seven feet, and a ridge of 9. The open end of the side walls were stabilized by a pair of vertical 10 diameter logs, which in turn also supported the front roof purlin. Five rows of rafters support nine boards for the shake roof. The gable roof has a long slope to the back, and a short overhang at the front. The shingles are 42 long. The lower sections of the three exterior walls consist of vertical log slabs supported by a round log sill. The log slabs rise to the height of the back wall on all three sides. The gable end walls are then constructed of stacked 6 x 6 sawn timbers, trimmed to form the slope.


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