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KALALOCH AREA



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ANDERSON BARN



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Anderson Barn

Anderson Barn spacer Anderson Barn

These two photos from Bruce Klanke on NWHikers.net


From "Historic Building Inventory Olympic National Park Washington" by Gail E. H. Evans

The George Anderson family established their pioneer home on the Queets River soon after the turn of the century. The Anderson Barn, which is the only structure remaining on the Anderson farm acreage, was probably erected sometime in the 1910s. The Anderson farm was one of several dozen-homestead properties extending form many miles along the Queets River Valley. This colony of pioneer settlers, known as Evergreen, was founded in 1890 when two individuals from Tacoma, Washington, John Banta and S. Price Sharp, enticed several Tacoma's to travel to the unsettled Queets Valley and take up residency. Although it was not unusual for two or more families to occupy a single homestead over a period of years, the Anderson farm apparently had no predecessors. Upon George Anderson's arrival on his property around 1905, he, like other Evergreen settlers, took up subsistence farming: the family cultivated vegetables and fruits for personal consumption and raised stock. Roads into the Queets Valley were not constructed until the 19204 and travel was limited to trails and the river. Due to the close-knit nature of the Queets community, and the fact that accessibility to the outside world was limited, the Evergreen community was socially self-sustaining. Two of the Anderson girls married the children of other Queets settlers (one becoming Mrs. Alice Andrews; the other becoming Mrs. Harry Kittridge), and two Anderson sons, George and Ted, continued living and farming on the Queets into adulthood. The son George Anderson became known for his prowess as canoe man, who piled the waters of the Queets delivering freight for a fare. After the 1940 authorization of Public Works Administration monies for the purchase of private land along the Queets by the Federal government, and the 1953 addition of the Queets corridor to Olympic National Park, Queets Valley farmers, including the Anderson family, were forced to abandon their land. Sometime after the Park Service acquired the Anderson property they converted the warehouse to a barn, used for housing packhorses, and destroyed the other farm buildings. Presently, the Anderson homestead has only one standing structure and there are only approximately ten acres that remain cleared. Rectangular in shape; measures approx. 18' x 32'; 1 1/2 stories (main block), 1 story (south end attachment); wood-frame wall construction sheathed with wood shakes; steeply pitched gable on main block, medium pitch gable on south section; shake roofing; stacked stone foundation (?) under main block; one window opening in north gable end; wood door on north end; tongue and groove wood floor in main block; dirt floor and feeding stalls in south attachment. Alterations: not apparent. Siting: located in a large, overgrown meadow with scattered fruit trees; random piles of milled lumber and river gravel nearby; small collapsed building approx. 50' to the east.

SIGNIFICANCE

The Anderson Barn is not eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places. Although the history of the Anderson settlement farm might be considered significant locally for its contribution to the history of pioneer settlement of the Queets River Valley, there is presently a negligible degree of physical integrity that remains. The barn is the only structure standing of the original Anderson homestead, and the cleared acreage, once used for crop cultivation and grazing, is succumbing to the invasion of native plants.



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ANDREWS BARN



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Andrews Barn - 1982 spacer Pelton Creek Shelter - 2008

Photos by Gary Patton (Juneau, Alaska) from NWHikers.net taken in 1982 and 1988.

Andrews Barn spacer Andrews Barn


From "Historic Building Inventory Olympic National Park Washington" by Gail E. H. Evans

The Andrews Barn was erected probably by John Andrews, around the mid 1920s, soon after he took up residency at this site. Andrews, who farmed the area around the barn between 1922 and 1944, was preceded at this location by William Hunter. Hunter was among the earlier settlers on the Queets River, possibly arriving around the turn of the century. In 1890 a colony of several dozen families established the community of Evergreen made up of several miles of continuous homesteads along the channel of the Queets River. For more than three decades, the Evergreen community of settlers was not accessed by roads. Out of necessity, settlers pursued an agrarian subsistence lifestyle, and for many years depended almost totally on river travel for transporting goods and supplies.

The John Andrews farm was apparently one of the larger, more successful farming operations in the Evergreen community. During the Andrews occupancy of the land, structures, including a house, barn, garage, wood shed, cooling house, turkey coop and a "guest house' made up the ensemble of farming buildings. Although the clearing in which the barn stands has been reduced to twenty-one acres due to the reinvasion of vegetation, at an earlier date as much as thirty acres was cleared and farmed. On their cleared land, the Andrews cultivated a variety of crops and fruits, including a number of root crops, beans, peas, lettuce, cabbage, apples, plums, pears, prunes, and blackberries. In addition, the Andrews raised a sizeable herd of cattle, as well as turkeys and chickens. Four years after the authorization of Public Works Administration monies for the acquisition of Queets corridor land by the Federal government, the Andrews abandoned their farm. The Andrews Barn, set at the edge of a twenty-one acre clearing, is the only visible remains of farming activity conducted by the Hunter and Andrews families. Rectangular in shape with attachment on north side elevation; main block measures approx. 80' x 65'; 2 stories; wood-frame wall construction; main block sided with vertical wood boards; gambrel roof with cedar shakes; 1 story shed roof addition with shingle roofing material; poured concrete foundation under main block; window opening fenestration is irregular; wide, double-leaf loft door above double-wide wood doors on ground level; dirt floor throughout much of the interior. Alterations: none apparent. Siting: located on west edge of twenty-one-acre open meadow.

SIGNIFICANCE

The Andrews Barn is ineligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places. Although the history of the Hunter/Andrews settlement farming operation might be considered significant locally for its contribution to the history of pioneer settlement of the Queets, there is presently a negligible degree of physical integrity that remains: the barn is the only structure standing of a complex that once consisted of seven buildings. In addition, the cleared acreage is gradually succumbing to the invasion of native plants around the periphery of the field.

From Historic Resource Study 1983 Olympic National Park
By Gail E. H. Evans and T. Allan Comp

John Andrews probably erected the Andrews Barn around the middle 1920's. This was soon after he took up residency at this site. William Hunter preceded John Andrews, who farmed the area around the barn between 1922 and 1944, at this location. Hunter was among the earlier settlers on the Queets River, possibly arriving around the turn of the century. In 1890 a colony of several dozen families established the community of Evergreen made up of several miles of continuous homesteads along the channel of the Queets River. For more than three decades, roads did not access the Evergreen community of settlers: out of necessity, settlers pursued an agrarian subsistence lifestyle, and for many years depended almost totally on river travel for transporting goods and supplies. The John Andrews farm was apparently one of the larger more successful farming operations In the Evergreen community. During the Andrew's occupancy of the land, the structures included a house; barn, garage, wood shed, cooling house, turkey coup and a "guest house" made up the ensemble of farming buildings. Although the clearing in which the barn stands has been reduced to twenty-one acres due to the re-invasion of vegetation, at an earlier date as much as thirty acres was cleared and farmed. On their cleared land, the Andrews cultivated a variety of crops and fruits. Including a number of root crops beans peas, lettuce, cabbage, apples, plums, pears, prunes, and blackberries. In addition, the Andrews raised a sizeable herd of cattle, as well as turkeys and chickens.

Four years after the authorization of Public Works Administration monies for the acquisition of Queets corridor land by the Federal government, the Andrews abandoned their farm. The Andrews Barn set at the edge of a twenty-one acre clearing. It is the only visible remains of farming activity conducted by the Hunter and Andrews's families. It is rectangular in shape with an attachment on north side elevation. It has a main block which measures approx. 80' x 65'. It is two stories high of wood frame wall construction; the main block is sided with vertical wood boards and has a gambrel roof with cedar shakes. There is a one story shed roof addition with shingle roofing material and poured concrete foundation under the main block. The window opening fenestratlon is irregular with wide, double-leaf loft door above the doublewide wood doors on ground level. There is dirt floor through out much of the interior. There are no apparent alterations. It is located on west edge of ten-acre open meadow.



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BECKERS INN



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Beckers Inn 1
Becker's Inn and resort cabins preceded the completion of the Olympic Loop Highway by nearly two years. After the dedication of this circumferential highway, which took place at Becker's in 1931, ocean beach resorts and auto camps thrived as a result of the new wave of motoring vacationists. (Courtesy of Olympic National Park)
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In 1940, rows of small shingle-sided resort cabins, standing near the edge of a bluff overlooking the Pacific Ocean surf, were part of Becker's Ocean Resort (new Kalaloch Lodge.) (Courtsy of Olympic National Park)



From "Historic Building Inventory Olympic National Park Washington" by Gail E. H. Evans

Becker's Ocean Resort, named after the resort founder Charles W. Becker, Sr., was one of the earliest Pacific Ocean beach resorts developed on the Far Western edge of the Olympic Peninsula. Even before substantial roads reached the area, Charles W. Becker, Sr., purchased approximately forty-two acres of ocean coastline property in the mid 1920s. With no roads to the property, Becker relied heavily on milled lumber washed onto the beach to construct the first small sleeping cabins. The original main lodge building and the early crescent-shaped row of cabins were all of wood-frame construction, sheathed with unpainted shingles, and capped with medium pitch gable roofs. In 1931 Becker's Ocean Resort was the site of ribbon cutting ceremonies for the official opening of the Olympic Peninsula's loop highway. Ten years later, Becker's served as the quarters for a U.S. Coast Guard unit engaged in coastal defense patrol operations. During Coast Guard occupancy, the main lodge was destroyed by fire and later, replaced by a new lodge structure in the early 1950s. Between the close of World War II and into the 1960s, Becker constructed several new cabins and improved and/or moved several of the older cabins. In 1940 Becker's Ocean Resort was included in the coastal strip acquisition of the park. In 1978 the Park Service purchased the resort itself. More than a dozen small cabins were removed in 1979 and after, being replaced by log structures during the 1982 and 1983 seasons. Becker's Ocean Resort group is an ensemble of approx. 50 buildings of mixed ages and architectural styles. Ten buildings in the group predate World War II and are principally modest wood-frame, gable roof structures with unpainted wood shingle siding. These dates from earliest period of construction of the resort, however, have lost varying degrees of architectural integrity due to alterations of window type, siding, or exterior sheathing. A slightly detached group of five resort cabins in deteriorated condition was removed in 1983. In 1981-1982, a closely spaced, crescent shaped row of log cabin structures was constructed just east of the older shingle-clad cabins. The main, 2 1/2 story lodge building located at the north end of the elongated loop of resort cabins, was completed in 1954 and replaced the original 2 story lodge destroyed several years earlier by fire. Becker's Ocean Resort is situated on a low grassy bluff overlooking the Pacific Ocean beach.

SIGNIFICANCE

Backer's Ocean Resort Group is not eligible for the National Register of Historic Places. While serving as an early link in Washington's transportation history, the destruction of the original lodge by fire and the recent addition of noncontributing log cabins has diminished the integrity of this resort's design, setting, materials' and association.



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PELTON CREEK SHELTER



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Pelton Creek Shelter - 2000 spacer Pelton Creek Shelter - 2008

Photo one by Bruce from NWHikers.net taken in 2000.
Photo two by GoBluehiker from NWHikers.net taken in 2008.

Pelton Creek Shelter

Photo one by RodF from NWHikers.net.

Pelton Creek Shelter - 1



From "Historic Building Inventory Olympic National Park Washington" by Gail E. H. Evans

Constructed near the confluence of Pelton Creek and the Queets River, Pelton Creek Shelter was one of dozens of shelters erected by the U.S. Forest Service in the 1930s on National Forest and National Monument land. Typical of shelter location patterns throughout the Olympic Peninsula, Pelton was constructed in a lowland valley, and spaced at regular intervals with other shelters and ranger/guard stations. Pelton Creek was furthest inland of all the Forest Service structures on the Queets River in the 1930s. The others included Bob Creek Shelter, Spruce Bottom (originally Harlow Bottom) Shelter, and Killea Guard Station. The U.S. Forest Service, who had jurisdiction over much of the area now included in Olympic National Park from 1905 to 1933, initiated shelter construction in the late 1920s and the 1930s. Shelter construction coincided with a period of active trail construction by the Forest Service. Shelters were at first intended for use by crews building and maintaining trails and laying telephone lines for fire protection purposes. As part of the Forest Service's multiple land use management policy, trails and shelters served to encourage backcountry recreational use in the interior Olympics. In the 1930s, CCC corpsmen under the supervision of the Forest Service, accelerated shelter and trail construction activity. By the late 1930s nearly 90 shelters stood on the Olympic Peninsula. The greatest abundance of shelters built in the 1930s occurred on the north and east facing slopes of the Olympic Range. During this initial period of construction, shelters were built primarily in lowland valleys along major rivers and creeks, and sited at locations where the fishing and scenery was attractive. In some instances (particularly along the Bogachlel River), shelters supplanted or augmented existing ranger or guard stations, or were constructed at existing popular hunting or fishing "camps" (especially along the Elwha River). Typically, shelters stood from three to five miles apart on established trails. Architecturally, these Forest Service-built shelters dating from the 1930s were made from local materials obtained from the building site, were constructed of peeled-pole or split-cedar lumbers sheathed with cedar shakes, and were capped with gable or shed, cedar shake roofs. Shelters were three-sided, and roomy enough to provide several people protection from the inclement weather typical on the peninsula. Significant numbers of the late 1920s and 1930s Forest Service-type shelters were taken down in the mid ,1970s, and in 1984 fewer than twenty remain standing. Square in shape; measures 14' x 14'; 1 story; pole wall construction sheathed with cedar shakes; modified gable roof with cedar shakes; exposed pole rafters and purlins; open on one side; no window openings; interior dirt floor. Alterations: no substantial changes known; reroofed in 1981. Siting: in wooded area at end of trail; in the vicinity of Queets River.

SIGNIFICANCE

Pelton Creek Shelter is eligible for the National Register of Historic Places. Historically, it represents a period in the history of Forest Service land management when policy concerns and planning focused heavily on fire protection and recreational use. Trail and trail shelter construction facilitated both of these goals. Unlike many 1930s' Forest Service shelters on the Olympic Peninsula that have been destroyed or succumbed to severe deterioration or vandalism, Pelton Creek retains much of its original exterior fabric. In some instances, original materials have been replaced with like materials. Consequently, Pelton Creek Shelter possesses integrity of design, materials workmanship, feeling) and association.




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QUEETS GUARD STATION



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In the southern section of the Olympic Peninsula, the National Forest Service, established the Killea Guard Station near the Queets River. In 1983, this building, which is now in Olympic National Park and renamed the Queets Ranger Station, appears much as it did fifty years ago. (Top photo courtesy of Olympic National Park; lower photo by G. Evans, courtesy of National Park Service, Pacific Northwest Region)


Queets Guard Station


From "Historic Building Inventory Olympic National Park Washington" by Gail E. H. Evans

The Forest Service completed the Killea (now Queets) Guard Station in the winter of 1929. The name Killea was derived from the William and Thomas Killea families who both homesteaded on the Queets River in the mid to late 1890s. As part of the Evergreen community founded in 1890 by John Banta and S. Price Sharp that extended for several miles up the Queets River, William and Thomas Killea established homesteads on opposite banks of the Queets River in T.24N. R.11W. Sec. 1 and 12. By 1908 Thomas Killea sold his property, and in 1917 William Killea did likewise. William Killea's property, known earlier as "Killea Field," was purchased by M. M. Kelley, and subsequently became known as "Kelley Field." Forest Service personnel to occupy the new Killea Guard Station constructed the original Killea Guard Station. At a later date, probably around 1940, the Killea Guard Station was moved by the Park Service eastward up the Queets River Road, to its present location. The Park Service constructed nearby a small equipment shed for the guard station in 1940. That year Public Works Administration monies were authorized for the purchase of the Queets River corridor, which in 1953, was added to Olympic National Park. This structure is one of numerous administrative buildings constructed by the U.S. Forest Service on the Olympic Peninsula. Beginning in 1905 the Forest Service gained jurisdiction of nearly 1.5 million acres of prime timberland on the peninsula, then included in the Olympic Forest Reserve. During the next thirty-three years, a network of administrative structures facilitating the forest ranges and guards (seasonal assistants) in patrolling this immense territory evolved. Ranger stations, usually erected at more accessible front country sites, and guard stations, typically built at backcountry locations only reached by trail, played an important role in the Forest Service's efforts to pursue its multiple resource land use policy. By the end of the 1930s no fewer than twelve ranger stations and nearly thirty guard stations stood in existence on the Olympic Peninsula. In 1984 only four Forest Service ranger stations and seven guard stations are extant on the Olympic Peninsula. The Killea Guard Station is one of five guard stations now standing in Olympic National Park. Rectangular in shape; measures 19'8" x 16'8" with 4' x 8' porch on main facade; 1 story; wood-frame wall construction sheathed with cedar shingles; gable roof over main block; gable roof porch on main facade and shed roof porch across rear elevation; roof sheathed with cedar shingles; exposed rafters; post and pier foundation (?); 4-over-4, double- hung sash windows; door on main facade and on rear elevation. Outbuilding: shed approx. 15' to rear of building; outhouse approx. 30' to rear. Alterations: building moved 1/4 to 1/2 mile to the east from original location; rear shed roof porch added. Siting: located at edge of grassy clearing approx. 25' from gravel parking area.

SIGNIFICANCE

The Killea Guard Station Residence is not eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places. Although the building represents an important era in Forest Service land management on the Olympic Peninsula, there has been a loss of physical integrity as a result of the relocation of the building and the removal of a garage/shed building that stood near the residence at its original location.



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QUEETS RIVER AREA HISTORY



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Queets River Valley


Cultural Resources Division
Recreation Resources and Professional Services
Pacific Northwest Region
National Park Service
Department of the Interior
1983

From "Historic Building Inventory Olympic National Park Washington" by Gail E. H. Evans

Queets River Drainage.

Nearly the entire length of the Queets River, from its headwaters on the southern slopes of glaciated Mount Olympus, to its tidewater flats on the Pacific Ocean, is now in Olympic National Park. Because it was a late addition to the Park, settler families continued to inhabit this area into the 1940s. Many evidences of early settlement have not had time to be fully obliterated during the past forty years. In addition, the inclusion of nearly the entire length of the Queets River in Olympic National Park (unlike the Soleduck, Bogachiel and Hoh Rivers) provides the opportunity for a more holistic understanding and interpretation of a continuum of white settlement in the western drainages of the Olympic Peninsula.

Near the end of the last century, the Queets, like the other major watersheds originating in the central massif of the Olympic Mountains, was largely unpopulated by non-native Caucasian settlers. Of the four primary rivers on the Olympic Peninsula emptying into the Pacific Ocean, the upper Queets River was physically similar to its neighbors to the norththe Soleduck, Bogachiel and Hoh Rivers. Between 1897 and 1900, the survey team led by Arthur Dodwell and Theodore Rixon observed the upper Queets River transected townships of rugged mountains with large old-growth timber on the lower slopes and dense underbrush along the river. At lower elevations trees, primarily hemlock and fir, were of immense diameters (U.S. Department of the Interior 1902, 47-49). Precipitation exceeded 100 inches annually, with heavy rain and seasonal snow melt often creating flood conditions along the low banks of the river. Lower sections of the Queets seemed somewhat hospitable to the agrarian pursuits of early homesteaders. In townships west of Paradise Creek, Queets River bottom lands averaged a mile in width. Before reaching the ocean, the Queets passed through areas of more gently rolling terrain. Between Tacoma Creek and Phelan Creek, the Dodwell-Rixon party found much of the area burned along the Queets River (U.S. Department of the Interior 1902, 41-42, 48).

The circumstances of early settlement along the Queets River were unique. The first arrivals on the Queets did not come on solo missions to establish independent homesteads. Instead, they came in groups as part of an organized commercialized plan to establish a settlement colony. This enterprising scheme for a Queets settlement colony was the brainchild of two Tacoma, Washington, residents, John Jackson Banta and S. Price Sharp. Eager to find available land with reasonable homestead potential, Banta and Sharp sailed from Tacoma in December 1889. After making short stops at several islands in Puget Sound, the Strait of Juan de Fuca and at Port Townsend, they arrived at Port Angeles on 7 December. From there they walked west along the coastline to the community of Pysht, then headed south across a low divide. At a beaver farm near the Soleduck River they encountered Charles A. Gilman and his son, Samuel, making preparations for their second Olympic Peninsula exploring expedition. Banta and Sharp were persuaded to join the three-week expedition when the Gilmans promised to compensate them for their assistance packing supplies. On 11 December 1889, the four men left their beaver farm host and proceeded south to the Forks Prairie, crossing the Bogachiel and Hoh Rivers before reaching the Pacific Ocean and the mouth of the Queets River. With the assistance of native Americans they canoed ten miles up the Queets River. On 22 December J. J. Banta recorded his first impressions of the river: "The Queets River does not head so high up the mountains, but is formed among the foothills and gathers its waters from a more level surface. Consequently, it is not so swift as the Hoh or Quinault. We think the bottom land will average one mile wide. It is level and rich, does not overflow, is timbered with cottonwood and alder." The next day Banta wrote, "We ate dinner about eight miles up river. Here is where I think I want to take my homestead" (Cleland 1973, 255-62).

Arriving back in Tacoma in early January 1890, J. J. Banta and S. Price Sharp immediately busied themselves making arrangements to organize a colony to settle on the Queets River. Their entrepreneurial plan called for sectioning off land into 160 acre parcels and providing transportation for all prospective settlers. Each settler would be charged $50 for the services provided by Banta and Sharpif, after seeing the land, the settlers were satisfied. In February Banta returned to the Queets to oversee the staking of claims and the construction of cabins. From March to July 1890, regular trips were made between Tacoma and the Queets with four to eight prospective claimants arriving at the infant colony each month. S. C. Gilman, who accompanied Banta and Sharp on their original trip to the Queets River, reported that thirty-one claims were located on the river during the spring of 1890 (Sunday Oregonian 1890, 25 May). The flow of newcomers subsided somewhat by the end of the year, and some settlers were dissatisfied and left. By 1891, however, the colony was substantial enough to organize and charter a steamboat twice during the year to transport passengers, goods and supplies from Tacoma to the mouth of the Queets. The chartered vessel, the Lucy Lowe, carried fifty-six passengers on its first voyage to the mouth of the Queets. Unnavigable conditions at the mouth of the Queets caused the early settlers to cut a primitive trail on the south bank of the river to the first homestead in the settlement colony (Cleland 1973, 268-76).

In early 1895 the Evergreen post office was established about half a mile above Mud Creek on the Queets in the home of Frank W. King, one of the original members of the colony. (Nine miles west of Evergreen, the Clearwater post office was established the same year to serve the growing numbers of residents along the Clearwater River.) For brief periods two other post offices operated on the Queets River up river from Evergreen: Tula (1901-1906) and Elkpark (1906-1913) (Ramsey 1978, 35, 44, 47).

Although some of Banta's and Sharp's original recruits left soon after arriving on the Queets River, many settlers perservered for several years. The names of families that were first transported to the Queets bottom lands in 1890 and 1891 appear on 1894-1895 General Land Office maps and again on an 1899 map of Jefferson County. Among the earliest settlers who maintained claims on the Queets River until at least 1899 were: Adam Metheny, Bertha and Rose Wartman, Fred and Frank Schaupp, H. B. Lyman, Anna Dickey, H. K. Mayhew, F. W. King, Dora Head, Neil A. McKinnon, Wm. S. Hartzell, Seth Glover, Henry Hibbard, James Donaldson, Frederick Knack and George Phelan (DNR Maps and Surveys; NARS:RG 49 1899). Many existing geographic place names are derived from the names of early settlers such as McKinnon Creek, Hibbard Creek, Matheny Creek and Phelan Creek. Early settlers were primarily of western European origin, born in countries such as Germany, Sweden, Scotland and Ireland. In the 1890s settlers' homesteads were located approximately one-half mile apart along the river bottom land. In late 1894 U.S. Deputy Surveyor James McPherson noted: "The bottom land along the rivers is nearly all occupied by settlers, among the swamp area a number of uncompleted and unoccupied cabins, the owners I understand having become discouraged at the task of clearing the land of its dense vegetation" (DNR Maps and Surveys).

The structures built by early Queets settlers were made from trees felled on the homestead and often erected with the assistance of neighbors. Houses were either wood frame or log, often one and one-half stories high, with a roof of cedar shakes (U.S. Department of Interior 1902, 24, 38; Dooley 1965, 1-3). Houses were small, usually measuring no more than 20 x 24 feet and consisted of one large room with a sleeping loft above. Homes rarely had masonry chimneys; heat was provided by both cooking and heating stoves. Casement or double hung sash windows were used sparingly and shipped from the outside. A frame barn, a chicken house, a wood shed, a milk house and other outbuildings were later additions to a homestead's complex of buildings (DNR Maps and Surveys; Dooley 1965, 7; Williams 1975, 26). In 1894 the value of improvements on homesteads on the Queets River ranged from $40 to $800 (DNR Maps and Surveys). Queets settlers selected old burns or prairie land for homesites when possible but, invariably, it was necessary to clear and keep cleared sections of land of underbrush and trees. When trees were too large to cut with an axe or saw, they were burned by placing hot coals in holes bored into the trunk. Burning required several weeks for larger trees. Burning slash piles of discarded trees and brush was an annual activity (NPS OLYM 1956).

Most Queets residents who stayed on the river for any length of time pursued subsistence farming. At first only a few acres were cleared and cultivated. Fields of oats and varieties of clovers and grasses were grown. Small lots were set aside for a vegetable garden. Root crops, such as potatoes, rutabagas, onions, turnips, carrots and parsnips, and cabbage, beans and tomatoes, grew with varying degrees of success. Settlers supplemented their diets by planting orchard trees (apple, plum, prune and cherry) and various berries (raspberries, strawberries, blackberries, and gooseberries). At first farm animals were limited primarily to one or two milking cows, and horses, pigs and chickens. Beef cattle were probably first introduced to the valley in the 1890s; later, several herds were raised by Queets Valley farmers. They became the only product of the area that earned substantial cash (Cleland 1973, 296; Dooley 1965, 74-77, 88; NPS OLYM, 1956; Williams 1975, 21-25). Harry J. Kittredge, a later Queets River resident, recalls that "a herd of about 100 head would be gathered from various farms, driven to the ocean and thence down the beach to Moclips, swimming the Quinault [River] en route. Cattle would graze in the woods if winters permitted" (NPS OLYM 1956). When settlers weren't farming, they often hunted, trappped and fished to supplement the family food supply or earn cash (Cleland 1973, 295-96; NPS OLYM 1956).

Slash surrounds a turn-of-the-century homesteader's cabin on the Queets River, located two miles below the present Queets Ranger Station. (From the U.S. Department of the Interior, 1902, Dodwell-Rixon report, courtesy of Olympic National Park)


The early settlers on the Queets placed high value on educating their children. In the 1890's no school "house" existed. Instead, lessons were taught in various settlers' homes by the wives of farmers. By the turn of the century, an early Queets settler, James Donaldson, donated land about a mile north of the mouth of Matheny Creek for the first schoolhouse (Dooley 1965, 31-34; Streater 1973, 288-89).

Even with the greatest effort, many settlers were unable to subsist in the Queets River community. Cash was needed to pay for supplies and services the valley could not produce. Some claimants lived only part of the year on their homesteads and worked outside the valley during the remaining months. Other families sent husbands to seek employment in mills, canneries or other local businesses while the wife and children remained at home to farm. A remarkable example of this is the Donaldson family. After locating a claim on the Queets River in 1892, James Donaldson, a marine engineer, spent several years on ships traveling to China, Japan and Alaska, while his wife, Annie Jane, and their children cleared land and planted gardens. James Donaldson returned home only two weeks each year and once was gone for two years. In 1906 Donaldson retired from the sea and built a small sawmill on his homestead and operated a fish and cannery at the mouth of the Queets River (Streater 1973, 283-86; Alcorn and Alcorn 1973, 29).

Physical and climatic conditions on the Queets River prohibited large-scale farming. In few cases were Queets settlers able to produce farm produce that exceeded their own personal needs, with the exception of raising cattle. In addition, markets for farm produce were distant and inaccessible.

A man with a hoe stands in a sea of potatoes, on the James Donaldson farm in the Queets River Valley, shown here in the mid 1920s. (Photo by A. Curtis, courtesy of Washington State Historical Society)


Travel into and along the Queets River was extremely difficult for decades. When colony organizers J. J. Banta and S. Price Sharp conceived the idea of a Queets settlement in 1890, a railroad down the west side of the Olympic Peninsula and across the Queets River was anticipated. It never materialized. After the earliest Queets colony members arrived on the river, they cut a primitive trail along the south bank of the river to its mouth. During the 1890s, native Americans living in the area used a trail that continued up the Queets River for some distance. In the mid 1890s a trail, used initially for carrying mail, was cut from Lake Quinault north to the Queets River. A second trail to Lake Quinault was built soon after. During the wet winter months, trails to the outside world turned to mud and were nearly impassable. In the early years of the Queets settlement, the only reliable transportation was by dugout cedar canoes, at first navigated by Indians and later by the settlers themselves. Transporting freight and passengers by canoe was limiting, arduous and always time consuming. A wagon road leading up the north side of the Queets Valley was not completed until around 1910. An article in a 1924 Peninsula newspaper described the situation:

The area of bottom land in the Queets and Clearwater [Rivers] has been estimated at 30,000 acres. Together with bench land, suitable for grazing and fruit and berry growing, the total area available there for agricultural purposes has been estimated as high as 20,000 acres. Of all this less than 1,000 acres are now under cultivation . . . . The wait for a highway or railroad has been so long as to discourage some of the most patient of the old settlers (TRL ca. 1924, n.d.).

It was not until the completion of U.S. Highway 101 in the 1920s and early 1930s, that the Queets River Valley was opened to the outside world. (The Queets Valley Road connecting the upper valley to Highway 101 was completed in 1929.) Markets remained distant and almost unreachable for nearly forty years (Dooley 1975, 3; Streater 1973, 292; ST 1962, 2 January; Williams 1975, 9).

The physical hardships and isolation encountered by residents on the Queets River caused many farmers to come and go quickly. A few stayed for several years. Between 1890 and 1940, a succession of farmers occupied the homesites of original settlers. Many old clearings remained open due to continued agricultural use (Williams 1975, 19). After President Franklin Roosevelt authorized the Public Works Administration acquisition of the Queets Corridor to Olympic National Park in 1940, land in the acquisition area was condemned and many inhabitants of the valley sold out. For a relatively brief period after 1940, a few valley residents continued living on the Queets River under Park Service permit. By 1953, the sixty-year period of white habitation effectively ended with the legislative addition of the Queets Corridor to the Park (UW 1954, 3 December).

Grassy fields and several buildings comprised the Fred Streater farm in the Queets River Valley, as viewed in the mid 1920s. (Photo by A. Curtis, courtesy of Washington State Historical Society)


Little more than forty years has elapsed since habitation of the Queets ended. Original settlement patterns which are marked by remnant clearings along the river still exist. A 1975 study of the abandoned homestead clearings in the Queets River Valley identified forty-three homestead clearings within the Park, varying in size from one-half acre to thirty-seven acres. Although some original clearings have been totally reinvaded by forest vegetation and the size of others has altered over the years, the general location and arrangement of clearings along the river represents the original linear settlement pattern of turn-of-the-century Queets settlement (Williams 1975, 10). This field pattern constitutes the most conspicuous evidence of the settlement period on the Queets River.

Other evidences of the settlement era on the Queets River still remain: nonnative grasses, ornamental shrubs and flowers, orchard trees, fallen and decaying fence posts, pieces of wire fencing and collapsed farm buildings are among the existing historic relics. None of the original structures dating from the 1890s colonization of the Queets remain standing. Two barns (Anderson and Andrews Barns) dating from the 1910s and 1920s are extant. One early residence building, Shaube cabin (Smith place), constructed in the 1920s and enlarged several years later, remains standing.

CLICK HERE FOR EVERGREEN ON THE QUEETS



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READ CABIN



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Read Cabin


From "Historic Building Inventory Olympic National Park Washington" by Gail E. H. Evans

Constructed in the 1930s by Sadie and Clarence Read. The Read Cabin stands on one of the earliest homesteaded parcels of land in the Queets River Valley community of Evergreen. Founded in 1890 by the two Tacoma businessmen, John Banta and S. Price Sharp, the Evergreen settlement colony began as a business venture that encouraged Tacoma residents to establish home sites in the lowland valley of the Queets River. Within two years, dozens of settlers claimed land along a twenty-mile stretch of the lower Queets. John Banta, one of the promoters of Evergreen, established his homestead in the general area of the present Read Cabin site. Two years after Banta constructed a small log cabin on this site; he erected a two-story wood-frame house. In 1893 Banta married Alice Annie Read, a widow with one son, William Clarence Read. By 1895 the Banta family had moved to California. Not long after, Alice Read Banta became seriously ill, and with her son William Clarence, returned to the Queets River, where she died in 1897. William Clarence Read, John Banta's stepson, remained on the Queets. Around 1900 William Clarence Read engaged in the business of canoeing freight up and down the Queets. Around the same time Read was also a mall carrier between Evergreen and the community of Clearwater to the west. In the late 1890s and the early 1900s the Banta home was designated the official Evergreen post office. Clarence Read and Sadie, his wife, moved from the Banta homestead to the mouth of the Queets River around 1906, and Clarence Read operated a store there. The two-story Banta house stood empty for many years. Several years later, probably in the 1930s, Sadie Read and a friend returned to the old homestead to erect a small cabin from the lumber in the two-story Banta house. When completed Read family members as a summer and weekend vacation retreat used the cabin. Several years after its construction the cabin and adjoining shed were moved approximately 'one hundred feet north of the river to avoid being swept away by the changing course of the Queets. Since the Reads stopped using their cabin. Occasional hunters and Park Service personnel in the area have frequented it. In the 1960s the Student Conservation Corps completed work on the foundation and possibly the roof of the building. Rectangular in shape; overall measurements approx. 12' x 18'; 1 story; wood-frame wall construction; shingle-sided exterior walls over tongue and groove horizontal boards; steeply pitched gable with shingles; gable roof porch over front main entrance; square sawn wood posts resting on concrete pier foundation; variety of window types including multi- and single-fixed sash, sliding single-light, and 1-over-1 double-hung sash; plain wide window frames; T & G flooring and walls of interior; split board ceiling; furnishings include built-in bunk beds, wall cabinets, wood table, and wood stove. Alterations: possibly new roof and new foundation done by Student Conservation Corp in the early 1960s. Attached to the shed building by a catwalk, and located at the edge of a 1 to 2-acre open field.

SIGNIFICANCE

The Read Cabin is not eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places. Although the cabin stands on, or near, a site of great historical significance in the history of the Queets River community of Evergreen, the existing Read Cabin dates from a later period of history relating more to recreational use of the Queets Valley. Additionally, the cabin has lost of degree of physical integrity due to the relocation of the building back from the Queets River, and the maintenance work done on the cabin by the Student Conservation Corps in the. 1960s. Due to the changing course of the Queets River that cut into the Banta homestead, the only visible landscape features remaining on the property, are a two to three acre open field and a few remnant orchard trees.



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SHAUBE SMITH CABIN



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Shaub-Smith Cabin - 2008 spacer Shaub Cabin - 1923 spacer Shaub Cabin Construction - 1923 spacer Shaub Cabin Construction - 1923

Photo one by GoBlueHiker on NWHikers.net during 2008.
Photos two to four by Michael Lujan on NWHikers.net dated 1923.

Smith Cabin - 2006 spacer Smith Cabin - 2006 spacer Smith Cabin - 2006 spacer Smith Cabin - 2006

Photos by Gary Patton (Juneau, Alaska) on NWHikers.net from 2006.

Smith Cabin - 2006

Photo one by Gary Patton (Juneau, Alaska) on NWHikers.net from 2006.

Shaube/Smith Place - circa 1970 spacer Shaube/Smith Place - circa 1970 spacer Shaube/Smith Place - circa 1970


From "Historic Building Inventory Olympic National Park Washington" by Gail E. H. Evans

The Shaube/Smith Place is about 5 miles [1] up the Queets Trail, near the junction of Tshletshy Creek. Hikers go past what used to be the largest Douglas Fir in the World [2]. It lost its top in a wind storm and now a fir in British Columbia is the largest one.

George A. Shaube [3] and his family first settled on the Shaube/Smith Cabin site, in the early 1920s. The Shaube Cabin, part of the existing building, was constructed in either 1922, or 1923 [4]. (The date "1923" is on the front door.) With the founding of the Evergreen colony in 1890, pioneer homestead claims were established at regular intervals for a twenty-mile stretch of the winding Queets flood plain, between the 1890s and the 1920s. Lack of road access up the Queets Valley until the late 1920s necessitated a subsistence agrarian lifestyle for early Queets residents. George Shaube was among the last individuals to settle in the Queets River community, and his homestead was the furthest upriver. The Shaube family remained on their homestead until 1929, at which time they moved downstream to the present Killea (Queets) Ranger Station (Located 1/4 mile west of the present location). Prior to 1929, The-National Forest Service used the Shaube Cabin as a guard station at certain times of the year [5][**].

Shaube was responsible for locating or directing trail construction in much river and creek drainage on the southern slopes of the Olympics. These included trails leading up the Queets and Salmon Rivers, along the Tshletshy, Matheny, and Pelton Creeks, between Pelton Creek and the head of Alta Creek, and along Harlow and State Creeks' which drain into the south fork of the Hoh River [5][**].

Oscar Smith purchased the Shaube property in 1929 and presumably pursued cattle raising on the property [5][**]. Smith built a major addition to the Shaube Cabin in 1929.

After Smith moved to the property, he opened his residence to seasonal fishing parties visiting the Queets. This he continued to do under a special use permit after the authorization of funds to purchase land along the Queets for inclusion in Olympic National Park in 1940. Possibly in the mid 1940s Oscar Smith vacated his residence, and thereafter it was used by seasonal employees and trail crews working in the park. In the early 1960s, the Student Conservation Corp (SCA) reconstructed the Shaube/Smith Cabin foundation, floor, windows, and the interior of the Smith addition, and reroofed the entire building. (Window openings remained the same.) SCA crews built a new front porch and installed a new plumbing system, as well. Since the 1960s there is evidence of additional work on the Shaube/Smith Cabin. Rectangular in shape with rectangular addition; main building measures 20' x 30'; addition measures 12 1/2' x 20'; 1 1/2 stories; both sections are wood-frame wall construction; main body sheathed with cedar shakes; addition sided with vertical, cedar boards; tarpaper on wall; gable roofs with cedar shake roofing material; multi-light, fixed- sash windows; some with plain board surrounds; wood doors with horizontal, board bracing; log (?) foundation. Alterations: portion of building added in late 1920s; rehabilitated by SCA in mid 1960s. Siting: near the edge of open, grassy field.

SIGNIFICANCE

The Shaube/Smith Cabin is eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places. Perhaps more than any other single structure in the Olympic National Park, it represents nearly a complete continuum of major historical themes that have occurred on much of the Olympic Peninsula. While its origins are rooted in the era of pioneer settlement of the Queets Valley, it was used successively as a Forest Service administrative shelter, a recreational resort for anglers, and finally, as a shelter by National Park Service employees. Although it has been the subject of more than one rehabilitation project, the Shaube/Smith Cabin retains its essential physical integrity, since the major addition was completed in 1929. In addition, it possesses integrity of location, design (since 1929), setting, workmanship, feeling, and association.

Note on Queets River Trail mileage numbers:

Molvar's "Hiking ONP" book says:

0.0 Trailhead and ford of the Queets River.
1.7 Andrews Field.
2.3 Spur path to former record Douglas-fir. [1]
2.4 Trail crosses Coal Creek.
4.2 Junction with lower ford trail. Bear left. [2]
5.1 Spruce Bottom Camp.
5.8 Junction with upper ford trail. Turn left. [3]
9.5 Trail crosses Harlow Creek.
11.2 Trail crosses Bob Creek.
13.6 Trail crosses Paradise Creek.
16.1 Pelton Shelter.

Click Here for biography of George Shaube and more pictures.





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READ SHED



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Read Shed


From "Historic Building Inventory Olympic National Park Washington" by Gail E. H. Evans

Constructed in the 1930s by Sadie and Clarence Read, the Read Cabin Shed stands on one of the earliest homesteaded parcels of land in the Queets River Valley community of Evergreen. Founded in 1890 by two Tacoma businessmen, John Banta and S. Price Sharp, the Evergreen settlement colony began as a business venture to encourage Tacoma residents to establish home sites in the lowland valley of the Queets River. Within two years, dozens of settlers claimed land along a twenty-mile stretch of the lower Queets. John Banta, one of the promoters of Evergreen, established his homestead in the general area of the present Read Cabin and Shed site. Two years after Banta constructed a small log cabin on this site, he erected a two-story wood-frame house. In 1893 Banta married Alice Annie Read, a widow with one son, William Clarence Read. By 1895 the Banta family had moved to California. Not long after, Alice Read Banta became seriously ill, and with her son William Clarence, returned to the Queets River, where she died in 1897. William Clarence Read, John Banta's stepson, remained on the Queets. Around 1900 William Clarence Read engaged in the business of canoeing freight up and down the Queets. Around the same time Read was also a mail carrier between Evergreen and the community of Clearwater to the west. In the late 1890s and the early 1900s the Banta home was designated the official Evergreen post office. Clarence Read and Sadie, his wife, moved from the Banta homestead to the mouth of the Queets River around 1906, and Clarence Read operated a store there. The two-story Banta house stood empty for many years. Several years later, probably in the 1930s, Sadie Read and a friend returned to the old homestead to erect a small cabin and the Read Cabin Shed from the lumber in the two-story Banta house. When completed the cabin and the shed were used by Read family members as a summer and weekend vacation retreat. Later, after the cabin and the shed were constructed, both were moved about one hundred feet north of the present river to avoid being swept away by the changing course of the river. In the 1960s, when the Student Conservation Corps completed work on the foundation and possibly the roof of the cabin, no work was apparently done on the Read Shed.

Rectangular in shape; overall dimensions approx. 8' x 12'; 1 story; wood-frame wall construction; horizontal T & G siding on exterior walls; gable roof with shingles; structure rests on two skids that extend approx. 6' beyond the north side of the building; four-light fixed sash windows; 3 door openings; dirt floor inside.

Alterations: moved from an earlier location, west side door opening cut since the building was constructed. Attached to the main house by a raised wood catwalk and located in a 1 to 2 acre open field.

SIGNIFICANCE

The Read Cabin Shed is not eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places. Although the shed stands on or near a site of great historical significance in the Queets River community of Evergreen, the existing Read Cabin Shed dates from a later period of history relating more to recreational use of the Queets Valley. Additionally, the shed has lost a degree of physical integrity due to the relocation of the building back from the Queets River. Due to the changing course of the Queets River that cut into the Banta homestead, the only visible landscape features remaining on the property are two to three acre open field and a few remnant orchard trees.



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ROSS CABIN



Click on photo to enlarge




Ross Cabin


From "Historic Building Inventory Olympic National Park Washington" by Gail E. H. Evans

Constructed in 1936, C. C. Ross built this small cabin, presumably as a summer vacation home. Little is known about the personal history of the Ross family. The Ross permanent residence was apparently in the Tacoma/Olympia area. Following C.C. Ross' death in the 1950s, Mrs. Ross and one son continued to make periodic vacation trips to their ocean-side home, as late as the early 1970s. Twenty years earlier the ocean strip was added to Olympic National Park by presidential proclamation in 1953. Following Mrs. Ross' death, the son fought to retain special use privileges of the cabin, and an entangled discussion between the National Park Service and the Ross son ensued. Since Park Service acquisition of the cabin, periodic repairs, maintenance and remodeling projects have altered the Ross Cabin. Some exterior window openings have been removed and in filled with shingled walls, and possibly both the front and rear shed roof porches are more recent additions, or have been substantially altered.

Rectangular in shape; measures 20' x 24' with shed roof addition on rear (north) wall and shed roof open porch across main facade; 1 1/2 stories; wood-frame wall construction sided with wood shingles; gable roof with wood shingles; irregular window fenestration; door centered in main facade and framed by fixed light casement windows. Alterations: exterior walls resided since 1952 (original channel drop siding; windows altered).

Setting: located in small clearing approx. 50' west of Highway 101.

SIGNIFICANCE

The Ross Cabin is ineligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places. The structure has little known historical significance. Since Park Service acquisition of the property, physical alteration through periodic remodels has eroded the building's architectural integrity.



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