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HOH AREA



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BOGACHIEL RIVER DRAINAGE HISTORY



From Historic Resource Study 1983 Olympic National Park
By Gail E. H. Evans and T. Allan Comp

The section of the Bogachiel River drainage far into the interior of Olympic Peninsula now inside Olympic National Park had few early permanent settlers. Even more than the upper Soleduck River, the upper Bogachiel River watershed and its major tributary, the Calawah River, were distant from supplies and markets. By river, the Pacific coastline was more than twenty-five miles to the west and shoreline conditions there were not conducive to navigation or docking of large vessels. Travel on the Bogachiel River was often difficult. The upper Bogachiel and Calawah Rivers cut through characteristically steep, broken and mountainous terrain. Around the turn of the century, certain species of evergreen, particularly spruce and cedar grew to their greatest height and diameter in townships transected by the Bogachiel. Dodwell and Rixon, while conducting their survey of forest conditions in the Olympic Forest Reserve in the late 1890s, observed spruce (in T. 27 N., R. 11 W.) that attained a diameter of more than five feet (U.S. Department of the Interior 1902, 66). Clearing land for homesteads was not only expensive but also arduous and time consuming. Conditions for settlement in the upper Bogachiel drainage were less than ideal.

Early settlement of the Bogachiel River, like other sections of the peninsula interior, occurred in the late 1880s and early 1890s. By late 1891, General Land Office Surveyor George Kline recorded no less than twelve settler's structures in T. 27 N., R. 12 W., now at the western boundary of Olympic National Park. Most were scattered along both sides of the Bogachiel River and spaced one-eighth to one and one-half miles apart. Among these early settlers were J. Henne, George M. Hemphill (near the confluence of present-day Hemp Hill Creek), C. P. and E. Roarks, Chris Morgenroth (near the mouth of "Morganroth" Creek), Peter Nielson, John Shaw and Lewis Chase. At that time there were very few settlers located further upstream in the eastern adjoining township (now included in Olympic National Park) (DNR Maps and Surveys) Although many of the early Bogachiel pioneers homesteaded along the river only briefly, new settlers continued to arrive during the 1890s. In 1892 the Bogachiel post office was established on the Bogachiel River near Hemp Hill Creek. Jacob A. Lochbaum, Henry Cotier and Morris Fehuley served successively as postmaster in the early and mid 1890s (Ramsey 1978, 33). In the late 1890s, while conducting an examination of the Olympic Forest Reserve, superintendent of Washington State Forest Reserves, D. B. Sheller, found "several" settlers scattered along the Bogachiel River (Rakeshaw 1955, 132). Many Bogachiel River settlers were agitated when, in 1897, their homes were included in the Olympic Forest Reserve. Protesting, twenty Bogachiel residents signed a petition requesting that their home sites be eliminated from the reserve. Signers of this 1899 petition included "Christ" Morgenroth, Peter Nielson and Otto and "Theodor" Siegfried (NARS: RG 49 1901, 7 March). Chris Morgenroth, whose Bogachiel River homestead was located just one mile west of the present Park boundary, eventually abandoned his homestead on the Bogachiel River. Later, recollecting his and the other homesteaders difficulties on the Bogachiel, he said, "we wanted farm land. Our idea was that we were going to pioneer and develop the West, but there were no markets, no roads, no trails, and we did not get any for at least thirty years afterward" (U.S. Congress 1936, 43). In 1905 Morgenroth joined the U.S. National Forest Service and, as one of the earliest rangers on the Olympic National Forest, cut many trails in the upper Bogachiel and Hoh River drainage (Historic American Buildings Survey WA-155 1983; NFS ONF 1912, n.d.). After Morgenroth left his homestead, his buildings were rented and occupied by a succession of settlers intent on making a life for themselves on the Bogachiel (Smith 1977, 19, 31).

A few early settlers remained on their homestead for years. Otto Siegfried came to the upper Bogachiel in the 18908 and settled on land about one mile below (west of) the Morgenroth homestead. He had two sons and a daughter. Although one son, Theodor, eventually moved to Seattle, George Siegfried stayed on the homestead most of his life. During the 1910s, George Siegfried's wife, Nell, taught Native American children in a schoolhouse located across the river from the Siegfried home (Smith 1977, 17-18). In 1948 the Siegfried homestead still appeared on a map of Olympic National Forest (U.S. Department of Agriculture 1948). Peter and Ora Brandeberry arrived on the Bogachiel River, just outside the present park boundary in the early 1920s. After first filing for a homestead claim on the nearby upper Hoh River in 1906, Peter and Ora and their family of seven children moved to the Bogachiel River, which was slightly closer to the town of Forks. In their early days on the Bogachiel a horse trail provided the only access to the outside world. Similar to other homesteaders on the peninsula, the Brandeberry's pursued a life of subsistence farming, on first the Hoh and later the Bogachiel Rivers, raising crops and cattle, and hunting and trapping in winter. For cash, Peter Brandeberry (as well as son, Harold) worked seasonally for both the National Forest Service and the National Park Service at various times during their tenure on the west side of the Peninsula. Over the years, the Brandeberry family members built one or two cabins upriver from their farm property on the Bogachiel River. Inside the Park boundary, the only known tangible evidence of white settlement along the Bogachiel River in 1983 is the decayed remains of one Brandeberry trapping cabin (Brandeberry 1983).



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FIFTEEN MILE SHELTER



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Fifteen Mile Shelter spacer Fifteen Mile Shelter - 1994

Fifteen Mile Shelter - 1999 spacer Fifteen Mile Shelter - 1981

Photo 1 is from Historic Building Inventory
Photos 2 and 3 are from 1994 and 1999 - from NWHikers.net by Don Abbott
Photo 4 is from 1981 - from NWHkiers.net by HappyHiker

Fifteen Mile was built in 1928 and is now listed in the National Register of Historic Places.



From "Historic Building Inventory Olympic National Park Washington" by Gail E. H. Evans

The Fifteen-Mile Shelter is one of four extant shelter structures along the Bogachlel River on the western slope of the Olympic Range. Constructed around 1928, it was among the earliest, still standing shelters, built by the Forest Service on the Olympic Peninsula. Peter Brandeberry, early Hoh, and later Bogachlel River settler, was seasonally employed by the Forest Service, and according to informant Jack Nattinger, may be the builder of all four Bogachlel shelters. Indeed, all four shelters share a somewhat unusual architectural feature: the major structural supports are of split cedar rather than peeled poles. Many Bogachlel River shelters were erected at or near back country guard stations: the Indian Creek Shelter stood near Indian Creek Guard Station; Flapjack Shelter stood near the Flapjack Guard Station (both shelters non extant); and the Hyak Shelter stood near the Hyak Guard Station. The U.S. Forest Service, who had jurisdiction over much of the area now included in Olympic National Park, from 1905 to 1933, initiated shelter construction in the late 1920s and the 1930s. Shelter construction coincided with a period of active trail construction by the Forest Service. Shelters were at first intended for use by crews building and maintaining trails and laying telephone lines for fire protection purposes. As part of the Forest Service's multiple land use management policy, trails and shelters served to encourage backcountry recreational use in the interior Olympics. In the 1930s, CCC corpsmen under the supervision of the Forest Service, accelerated shelter and trail construction activity. By the late 1930s nearly 90 shelters stood on the Olympic Peninsula. The greatest abundance of shelters built in the 1930s occurred on the north and east facing slopes of the Olympic Range. During this initial period of construction, shelters were built primarily in lowland valleys along major rivers and creeks, and sited at locations where the fishing and scenery was attractive. In some instances (particularly along the Bogachlel River), shelters supplanted or augmented existing ranger or guard stations, or were constructed at existing popular hunting or fishing "camps" (especially along the Elwha River). Typically, shelters stood from three to five miles apart on established trails. Architecturally, these Forest Service-built shelters dating from the 1930s were made from local materials obtained from the building site, were constructed of peeled-pole or split-cedar lumbers sheathed with cedar shakes, and were capped with gable or shed, cedar shake roofs. Shelters were three-sided, and roomy enough to provide several people protection from the inclement weather typical on the peninsula. Significant numbers of the late 1920s and 1930s Forest Service-type shelters were taken down in the mid 1970s, and in 1984 fewer than twenty remain standing. Rectangular in shape; measures 14' x 14; 1 story; rough split timber wall construction with cedar shake siding; front portions of 2 side walls without shakes; modified gable roof with (cedar shake roof; staked stone foundation; no window openings; 2 bunk beds along rear wall; dirt floor. Alterations: front sloping gable reroofed in 1982. Siting: located on sloping, wooded hillside, approx. 200' above North Fork of Bogachlel River.

SIGNIFICANCE

The Fifteen Mile Shelter, along with the three other extant shelters on the Bogachlel River, ineligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places. This structure represents an important historical era in the management of the Olympic Peninsula public lands by the Forest Service, whose primary concerns in the 1920s and 1930s centered on fire protection of the extensive timber stands and recreational development. This building is typical of the architectural type of shelter built by the Forest Service in the 1930s. Located approx. 5 miles distant from a neighboring shelter (or shelters), this shelter and its companions maintain the spatial distribution of shelters built by the Forest Service in the 1930s along lowland valleys of the interior Mountains. This unbroken chain of shelters along the Bogachlel River, is not duplicated anywhere on the peninsula in 1984. Few, if any alterations have been made to the structure, thus it possesses integrity of design, materials, workmanship, feeling, and association.



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HAPPY FOUR SHELTER



Click on photo to enlarge




Happy Four Shelter

Happy Four Shelter - 1999. Photo by RodF from NWHikers.net

Happy Four Shelter


From "Historic Building Inventory Olympic National Park Washington" by Gail E. H. Evans

Constructed near the bank of the Hoh River, Happy Four Shelter was one of dozens of shelter structures erected, by the U.S. Forest Service in the 1930s on National Forest and National Monument land. Typical of shelter location patterns. Happy Four Shelter was one of five shelters or ranger/guard stations spaced at regular intervals on or near the Hoh River. In the late 1930s, the other structures on the Hoh River included, Jackson (Hoh) Ranger Station, Mt. Tom Shelter, Olympus Ranger Station and Olympus Shelter. The U.S. Forest Service, who had jurisdiction over much of the area now included in Olympic National Park from 1905 to 1933, initiated shelter construction in the late 1920s and the 1930s. Shelter construction coincided with a period of active trail construction by the Forest Service. Shelters were at first intended for use by crews building and maintaining trails and laying telephone lines for fire protection purposes. As part of the Forest Service's multiple land use management policy, trails and shelters served to encourage backcountry recreational use in the interior Olympics. In the 1930s, CCC corpsmen under the supervision of the Forest Service, accelerated shelter and trail construction activity. By the late 1930s nearly 90 shelters stood on the Olympic Peninsula. The greatest abundance of shelters built in the 1930s occurred on the north and east facing slopes of the Olympic Range. During this initial period of construction, shelters were built primarily in lowland valleys along major rivers and creeks, and sited at locations where the fishing and scenery was attractive. In some instances (particularly along the Bogachlel River), shelters supplanted or augmented existing ranger or guard stations, or were constructed at existing popular hunting or fishing "camps" (especially along the Elwha River). Typically, shelters stood from three to five miles apart on established trails. Architecturally, these Forest Service-built shelters dating from the 1930s were made from local materials obtained from the building site, were constructed of peeled-pole or split-cedar lumbers sheathed with cedar shakes, and were capped with gable or shed, cedar shake roofs. Shelters were three-sided, and roomy enough to provide several people protection from the inclement weather typical on the peninsula. Significant numbers of the late 1920s and 1930s Forest Service type shelters were taken down in the mid 1970s, and in 1984 fewer than twenty remain standing. Square in shape; measures 14' x 14'; 1 story; wall construction log-frame with shake siding; modified gable roof with shake roof; hewn log rafters; foundation - sill logs resting on stone. Alterations: shingles on section of rear wall removed to create an opening for light; this is covered with a corrugated plastic sheet; dirt floor; no bunk beds; cedar shakes on roof replaced, and bunks removed in 1978 or 1979. Siting: near trail. In grove of trees.

SIGNIFICANCE

Happy Four Shelter is eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places. Historically, it represents a period in the history of Forest Service land management when policy concerns and planning focused heavily on fire protection through trail, lockout, and shelter construction, and on encouraging recreational use in the back country. Unlike many 1930s' Forest Service shelters on the Olympic Peninsula that have been destroyed or succumbed to severe deterioration or vandalism. Happy Four Shelter retains much of its original exterior fabric. In some instances, original materials have been replaced with like materials. Consequently, Happy Four Shelter possesses integrity of design, materials, workmanship, feeling, and association.



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HOH RIVER SETTLEMENT



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The 1921 "blowdown" which knocked over thousands of trees on the Olympic Peninsula, made travel difficult for settlers along the Hoh River Trail. (Photo by A. Curtis, courtesy of Washington State Historical Society)




From Historic Resource Study 1983 Olympic National Park
By Gail E. H. Evans and T. Allan Comp
Cultural Resources Division
National Park Service

Like the Bogachiel, the upper Hoh River drainage presented great challenges for early settlers. Large, old-growth trees of sometimes-immense diameters, thick undergrowth, and remoteness from markets were features confronting settlers. From the headwaters of the Hoh and its tributaries in the Interior Olympic range, to the tidewater of the Pacific Ocean, the Hoh River descends more than 7,000 feet in about fifty miles. The cascading volume of the river is increased by an average annual rainfall of 145 inches (Fletcher 1966, 218). The river is steep, swift, and difficult, even dangerous, to navigate. Flooding often occurs and, yearly, riverbanks are created and swept away. Although the valley floor is somewhat wider than that of the Bogachiel River, bottomlands often have soil that is unsuitable for agriculture and are susceptible to flooding. Surrounding terrain along the upper Hoh River is steeply rolling and broken and in some places rugged and mountainous. Homesteading along the upper Hoh River was not undertaken until the early 1890s.

Two brothers, Cornelius and John Hueisdonk, were possibly the earliest to settle on the upper Hoh River. While working on a Seattle-based land survey crew, John Hueisdonk first encountered the Hoh region in the early 1890s. In 1891 John and Cornelius Hueisdonk traveled from Seattle to the Olympic Peninsula in search of suitable land open to settlement. After claiming land along the upper Hoh, they erected a cabin and cleared a small acreage for a garden. John then returned to the Hueisdonk family in Council Bluffs, Iowa, married his foster sister, Dora Carolina Wilimina Wolf, and returned to the Hoh Valley in the fall of 1892. Soon, others in the Hueisdonk family traveled to the West, taking up residence on the Hoh River. Over time, other members of the Hueisdonk family enclave of original Hoh River settlers died or moved away until John and Dora Hueisdonk were the only family members who remained (Fletcher 1966, 226-27). The original Hueisdonk "ranch" was just two miles outside the present western boundary of Olympic National Park.

The life of John and Dora Hueisdonk was representative of the quality and character of the lives of many settlers who came to the interior watersheds of the western Olympic Mountain range seeking homes. During their long residence on the Hoh River, the Hueisdonk family depended on a variety of activities to subsist. Soon after the family first arrived on the Hoh, John Hueisdonk worked seasonally in a logging camp away from home to earn cash for purchasing needed supplies. At the homestead he was routinely occupied with clearing land, erecting farm buildings and fences, cultivating a garden, grazing cattle and sheep, backpacking for hunters, geologists, timber cruisers and surveyors, and hunting and trapping. When state bounties were offered for killing predators, John Hueisdonk hunted cougar to earn cash (Fletcher 1966, 227-28). Later, Hueisdonk earned wages building trails in the Olympic Mountains for the National Forest Service (Smith 1977, 53). Dora Hueisdonk's life was equally rigorous, raising four children and tending to a variety of family chores. Travel for the Hueisdonk's as for other early Hoh River settlers, was limited primarily to canoe and primitive trails. The staple diet of the family was vegetables and bread. Humorously, it has been said that conditions on the Hoh afforded only a very monotonous cuisine consisting of "spuds and elk for breakfast, elk and spuds for lunch and at night the same with sauerkraut" (Fletcher 1966, 224).

The Hueisdonk family was not alone on the Hoh River. During the 1890s and around the turn of the century, other homesteaders, many of north-European extraction, joined them. In 1901, in a request for exclusion of Hoh River land from the newly formed Olympic Forest Reserve, more than twenty-five residents on the Hoh River came forward to sign a petition (NARS:RG 49 1901, 7 March). Settler population on the Hoh River was apparently great enough to warrant the establishment of two post offices. Seventeen miles southeast of Forks, Washington, the Pins post office was established on the Hoh River in 1897. Farther upstream, the Spruce post office was created in 1904 in the Hueisdonk home with John Hueisdonk as postmaster. John Hueisdonk was the only postmaster during the twenty-nine year existence of the Spruce post office (Ramsey 1978, 39-40, 45-47).

Just outside the western boundary of Olympic National Park, between the confluence with Winfield Creek on the west, and the juncture of the South Fork Hoh on the east, early settlers homesteaded or squatted on land within half a mile of the winding course of the river. The experiment of living on the Hoh was brief for many. Others stayed long enough to have their names bestowed on short tributary creeks or to be faintly remembered by aged local residents. Winfield Creek derives its name from a very early resident who settled at the mouth of the creek now bearing his name (Smith 1977, 41). The same is also true of Snell Creek, named for Billy Snell who homesteaded near the creek; Willoughby Creek is named for Pete Willoughby (Smith 1977, 19, 60). Near Pete Willoughby's homestead, the Moritz family settled and cleared sixty acres of land. They are remembered for their production of hops around 1910 (Smith 1977, 8-9). H. O. Mllbourn, who occupied homestead "ranch" property in the same general area, was a fire warden at the Jackson (Hoh) Ranger Station in the 1910s. T. R. H. Schmidt bought and moved onto the Willoughby homestead in the 1910s and purchased the Mllbourn and Moritz properties as well (Smith 1977, 60, 63). The "Schmidt Ranch" appears even on the most current United States Geological Survey (U.S.G.S) quadrangle maps of the area.

Farther up the Hoh River and within two miles of the Olympic National Park boundary, Pete Brandeberry settled just east of the Hueisdonk's home after the turn of the century (Smith 1977, 37). Also arriving after 1900 was a Fred Fisher who settled on land adjacent to the present Park boundary. The seventy-year-old Fisher house was still standing in the late 1970s. After Fred Fisher left his homestead, Charles and Marie Lewis took up residence there. The "Lewis Ranch" appears on the most recent U.S.G.S. quadrangle maps. The name of Otis Crimean is remembered by some. His homestead was close to Fred Fisher's property near the Olympic National Park boundary. Together, Fisher and Crippen bulit a cabin, which served as a trapping, headquarters near the junction of the Hoh River and its south fork inside the Park (Smith 1977, 37). Names like Hueisdonk, Brandeberry, Fisher, Crippen, Moritz, Milbourn, and Schmidt are an integral part of the cultural history of the upper Hoh River.

Many homestead and timber claimants who stayed only briefly left small cabins behind which slowly deteriorated. Now there is little trace of their presence. Hoh River resident Leroy Smith recalled that while cougar hunting in 1919 he found two cabins on Miller Creek built by two unidentified women. "They must have been gone several years, but everything was still in order. In one cabin, there was a trunk full of clothes: new overalls, several pairs of wool socks, shirts and many other things, including all the dishes. . . . In those days I knew of many claim cabins and I stayed overnight in some of them. While hunting in snow or rain, you sure appreciated a warm shelter" (Smith 1977, 58).

Even as early as 1919, few traces of settlement history inside the present Olympic National Park boundaries remained along the Hoh Valley. In that year General Land Office Surveyors Roy Campbell and Earle Williams recorded the existence of no more than a trail and a telephone line along the Hoh River between Jackson Creek and Glide Creek (T. 27 N., R. 9 W.) (DNR Maps and Surveys). Public administration of remote interior sections of the Hoh River by 1897 undoubtedly discouraged the further penetration of permanent white settlement. Today, there are no known extant structures in Olympic National Park to testify to the struggles of these early Hoh River settlers.



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HYAK SHELTER



Click on photo to enlarge




Hyak Shelter spacer Hyak Shelter 1999

Hyak Shelter 1999 spacer Hyak Shelter 1981

Photo one is from Historic Building Inventory
Photos 2 and 3 are from 1999 and posted by Don Abbott on NWHikers.net
Photo 4 is from 1986 and posted by HappyHiker on NWHikers.net

Hyak was built in 1928 and is now listed in the National Register of Historic Places.



From "Historic Building Inventory Olympic National Park Washington" by Gail E. H. Evans

The Hyak Shelter is one of four extant shelter structures along the Bogachlel River on the western slope of the Olympic Range. Constructed around 1928, it was among the earliest, still standing shelters, built by the Forest Service on the Olympic Peninsula. Peter Brandeberry, early Hoh, and later Bogachlel River settler, was seasonally employed by the Forest Service, and according to informant Jack Nattinger, may be the builder of all four Bogachlel shelters. Indeed, all four shelters share a somewhat unusual architectural feature: the major structural supports are of split cedar rather than peeled poles. Many Bogachlel River shelters were erected at or near back country guard stations: the Indian Creek Shelter stood near Indian Creek Guard Station; Flapjack Shelter stood near the Flapjack Guard Station (both shelters non extant); and the Hyak Shelter stood near the Hyak Guard Station. The U.S. Forest Service, who had jurisdiction over much of the area now included in Olympic National Park from 1905 to 1933, initiated shelter construction in the late 1920s and the 1930s. Shelter construction coincided with a period of active trail construction by the Forest Service. Shelters were at first intended for use by crews building and maintaining trails and laying telephone lines for fire protection purposes. As part of the Forest Service's multiple land use management policy, trails and shelters served to encourage backcountry recreational use in the interior Olympics. In the 1930s, CCC corpsmen under the supervision of the Forest Service, accelerated shelter and trail construction activity. By the late 1930s nearly 90 shelters stood on the Olympic Peninsula. The greatest abundance of shelters built in the 1930s occurred on the north and east facing slopes of the Olympic Range. During this initial period of construction, shelters were built primarily in lowland valleys along major rivers and creeks, and sited at locations where the fishing and scenery was attractive. In some instances (particularly along the Bogachlel River), shelters supplanted or augmented existing ranger or guard stations, or were constructed at existing popular hunting or fishing "camps" (especially along the Elwha River). Typically, shelters stood from three to five miles apart on established trails. Architecturally, these Forest Service-built shelters dating from the 1930s were made from local materials obtained from the building site, were constructed of peeled-pole or split-cedar lumbers sheathed with cedar shakes, and were capped with gable or shed, cedar shake roofs. Shelters were three-sided, and roomy enough to provide several people protection from the inclement weather typical on the peninsula. Significant numbers of the late 1920s and 1930s Forest Service-type shelters were taken down in the mid 1970s, and in 1984 fewer than twenty remain standing. Rectangular in shape; measures 14' x 14'; 1 story; peeled-pole wall construction sheathed with wood shakes; open on one side; modified gable with cedar shakes; rough split, exposed rafters; staked stone foundation; no window openings; 2 bunk beds on interior rear wall; pole and shake outhouse and hitching post, both approx. 50' from shelter. Alterations: probable replacement of original roof. Siting: located at edge of an open field; portions of wood fence at edge of field.

SIGNIFICANCE

The Hyak Shelter, along with the three other extant shelters on the Bogachlel River, eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places. This structure represents an important historical era in the management of the Olympic Peninsula public lands by the Forest Service, whose primary concerns in the 1920s and 1930s centered on fire protection for the extensive timber stands, and recreational development. This building is typical of the architectural type of shelter built by the Forest Service in the 1930s. Located approx. 5 miles distant from a neighboring shelter (or shelters), this shelter and its companions maintain the spatial distribution of shelters built by the Forest Service in the 1930s along lowland valleys of the interior Mountains. This unbroken chain of shelters along the Bogachlel River, is not duplicated anywhere else on the peninsula in 1984. Few, if any, alterations have been made to the structure, thus it possesses integrity of design, materials, workmanship, feeling, and association.



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INDIAN CREEK (BOGACHEIL) GUARD STATION AND WOOD SHED/FIRE CACHE



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Bogachiel Ranger Station spacer Bogachiel Ranger Station spacer Bogachiel Ranger Station 1981 spacer Bogachiel Ranger Station

Bogacheil Ranger Station as of 1989 - Photo 1 from NWHikers.net by Don Abbott. Photo 2 from NWHikers.net by Tinman
Photo 3 taken in 1981 by HappyHiker and posted on NWHikers.net
Photo 4 posted by RodF on NWHikers.net - Date Unkown
Lyle Cowles, while leading Olympic National Park trail crews, authored a series of "Trail Notes" for the Forks Forum and Peninsula Daily News in the early 1970s. These were collected into a short book, "Letters from Olympus - A Trailman's Almanac" in 1976, which includes these photos of a few of the many historic structures we've since lost from the Park.


The above structure wasw lost as the Bogachiel River changed course in the early 1990s.



Indian Creek Guard Station Wood Shed/Fire Cache


From "Historic Building Inventory Olympic National Park Washington" by Gail E. H. Evans

Constructed by the Forest Service in 1928, this building served as a wood shed/fire cache for the Indian Creek Guard Station. Peter Brandeberry, early Hoh, and later Bogachiel River settler and seasonal Forest Service employee, may be the builder. Near the confluence of Indian Creek and the Bogachlel River, the Forest Service also built a guard station residence, a barn for pack animals, and a shelter - all in the late 1920s or early 1930s. Fire subsequently destroyed the guard station residence, and the wood shed/fire cache was converted to a seasonal ranger residence. At the same time) or slightly later, the building was moved back from the bank of the Bogachlel, probably to avoid being washed away by the changing course of the river. In 1981 the riverbank under the first section of supports for the barn were washed away by the eroding action of the river. This structure is one of numerous administrative buildings constructed by the U.S. Forest Service on the Olympic Peninsula. Beginning in 1905 the Forest Service gained jurisdiction of nearly 1.5 million acres of prime timberland on the peninsula, then included in the Olympic Forest Reserve. During the next thirty-three years, a network of administrative structures facilitating the forest rangers and guards (seasonal assistants) in patrolling this immense territory evolved. Ranger stations, usually erected at more accessible front country sites, and guard stations, typically built at back country locations only reached by trail, played an important role in the Forest Service's efforts to pursue its multiple resource land use policy. Before 1911 only a few ranger and guard stations were built (including Storm King, Interrorem, and Louella). But as the ranks of forest personnel swelled, and trails were built into the rugged interior, more stations were added. Often these ranger and guard stations consisted of living/sleeping quarters, a fire cache, a tool/wood shed, a shelter) and sometimes a horse barn and corral. With the arrival of the CCC on the peninsula in the 1930's, Forest Service-administered lands witnessed a great boom in fire prevention and recreation development. The construction of Forest Service ranger and guard stations reached epoch proportions. By the end of the 1930s no fewer than twelve ranker stations and nearly thirty guard stations stood in existence on the Olympic Peninsula. Many of these 1930s Forest Service-built administrative buildings embodied physical characteristics reflecting the Rustic Style, a style that advocated employing designs, materials, and sitings that were closely integrated with the surrounding landscape. The pine tree symbol. Identified with both the Forest Service and the CCC became widely used during the 1930s. With the creation of Olympic National Park in 1938 and the gradual introduction of air surveillance in fire management following World War II, ranger and guard station construction subsided. More recently many existing structures have been demolished. In 1984 only four Forest Service ranger stations and eight guard stations are extant on the Olympic Peninsula. The Indian Creek Guard Station is one of five guard stations now standing in Olympic National Park. Rectangular in shape; measures 16'3" x 24'; 1 story; wood-frame wall construction with board and batten siding; gable roof with wood shakes; shed roof porch on east end of main facade; exposed rafters; wood pier foundation (?); wide, fixed sash, single-light windows on all walls; wood door. Alterations: moved several yards from original location near the river; replacement and modification of porch in 1981; Insertion of new windows; replacement of board and batten siding on lower section of walls. Siting; located at edge of a meadow approx. 40' from bluff overlooking the Bogachlel River.

SIGNIFICANCE

The Indian Creek Guard Station Wood Shed/Fire Cache is not eligible for Listing in the National Register of Historic Places. Since its construction in 1928 the building has been relocated and severely altered, partly as a result of its change in use from a storage building to a residence. In addition, both nature and man have altered the setting of the building. This wood shed/fire cache no longer possess integrity of location, design, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling) and association.

A letter about the history of the Bogachiel (Indian Creek) Guard Station from long-time Olympic National Park volunteer Backcountry Ranger "Bogachiel Beth" Rossow. It was located 6 miles up the Bogachiel Trail, just past the Indian Pass Trail junction. Posted on NWHikers.net by Rod F.

Hi Rod,

Just read the April 2008 discussion that included questions about the 1990 washout of the Bogachiel Guard Station. It was undercut by the river on Thanksgiving weekend of Nov. 1990. A former boyfriend of mine was actually there at the time, watching the river suck down the barn shelter, most of the grove, and all of the meadow. He informed the Park. The Rangers from the Hoh came and moved valuables, like the Guard Station Log Book, to higher ground. The Trail Crew came later, before I got there that next spring, to dismantle the cabin which was in tact but the porch was hanging over the river. They stacked the lumber and covered it with a tarp. There was talk of using the wood to build a platform ranger station in a different location. After a few years of the river coming ever closer to thje tarped pile of wood, it finally got to a point one winter when the whole lumber pile was awash at high water. I burned it all to prevent all the mess it would have been if it all got away. I then began a decade of packing out all the last remnants of those structures and the trash that emerged from the new cutbanks that constantly revealed new strata of former Guard Station historical trash burials and privy holes that were now being exposed. It was an ongoing and huge job, but I've had the time to do it over the years of my privileged stay on the Bogachiel. Spring of 1990 was my first year as a volunteer on the Bogie...

I hiked through from the Dose to the Bogachiel in late August this year. The trail was almost cleared at that time. I think they got it all by their last Tour. It looked fantastic. I hope this winter is not too bad so I can return next spring to enjoy a trail that is not covered with hundreds of more logs.

The clearing of South Snider Jackson was done by Dave Skinner with one Volunteer in tow. Dave also singlehandedly cleared the North Snider Jackson. The SSJ has been mostly maintained since we cleared it as a team of 4 in 2004. Dave has been keeping the whole Snider Jackson Trail in good shape yearly and he will continue that routine as long as he can physically do it. He is an awesome one- man- show who is responsible for the great work you see on many of the side trails of ONP. His team of 2, carries all fuel, food, tools, etc, without stock support, and gets as much done as the regular trail crew. He is an amazing, and graceful entity in our ONP family. He deserves a lot of appreciation from us all.

Best Wishes, Bogachiel Beth

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INDIAN CREEK (BOGACHEIL) BARN



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Photos 1 and 2 are of Bogacheil Horse Barn as of 1989 - Photos from NWHikers.net by Don Abbott
Photo 3 is from 1981 by HappyHiker from NWHikers.net

Indian Creek Barn

The the above structure was lost as the Bogachiel River changed course in the early 1990s.




From "Historic Building Inventory Olympic National Park Washington" by Gail E. H. Evans

Constructed by the Forest Service in 1930, the indian Creek Guard Station Barn was erected as part of a four-building complex at the confluence of indian Creek and the Bogachlel River. A guard station residence, wood shed/fire cache, and shelter completed the trailside building ensemble. Peter Brandeberry, early Hoh, and later Bogachlel River settler and seasonal Forest Service employee may be responsible for the barn's construction. The barn originally consisted of an open-sided section of horse stalls and an enclosed feed room. in 1981 the changing course of the Bogachlel River swept away ground beneath the first section of Barn supports. This structure is one of numerous administrative buildings constructed by the U.S. Forest Service on the Olympic Peninsula. Beginning in 1905 the Forest Service gained jurisdiction of nearly 1.5 million acres of prime timberland on the peninsula, then included in the Olympic Forest Reserve. During the next thirty-three years, a network of administrative structures facilitating the forest rangers and guards (seasonal assistants) in patrolling this immense territory evolved. Ranger stations, usually erected at more accessible front country sites, and guard stations, typically built at back country locations only reached by trail, played an important role in the Forest Service's efforts to pursue its multiple resource land use policy. Before 1911 only a few ranger and guard stations were built (including Storm King, Interrorem, and Louella). But as the ranks of forest personnel swelled, and trails were built into the rugged interior, more stations were added. Often these ranger and guard stations consisted of living/sleeping quarters, a fire cache, a tool/wood shed, a shelter, and sometimes a horse barn and corral. With the arrival of the CCC on the peninsula in the 1930s, Forest Service administered lands witnessed a great boom in fire prevention and recreation development. The construction of Forest Service ranger and guard stations reached epoch proportions. By the end of the 1930s no fewer than twelve ranger stations and nearly thirty guard stations stood in existence on the Olympic Peninsula. Many of these 1930s Forest Service-built administrative buildings embodied physical characteristics reflecting the Rustic Style, a style that advocated employing designs, materials, and sitings that were closely integrated with the surrounding landscape. The pine tree symbol. Identified with both the Forest Service and the CCC became widely used during the 1930s. With the creation of Olympic National Park in 1938 and the gradual introduction of air surveillance in fire management following World War II, ranger and guard station construction subsided. More recently many existing structures have been demolished. In 1984 only four Forest Service ranger stations and eight guard stations are extant on the Olympic Peninsula. The Indian Creek Guard Station is one of five guard stations now standing in Olympic National Park. Rectangular in shape; measures approx. 22' x 24'; 1 story; wood-frame wall construction sheathed with wood shakes; approx. one quarter of the structure no longer exists; gable roof with shakes; wood foundation; single, multi-light fixed sash windows frame a door opening on north wall; approx. 50' from an outhouse. Alterations: removal of approx. 10' of the structure in 1981 due to damage caused by flooding. Siting: located at the edge of the Bogachiel River near the edge of an open meadow; approx. 150' from Bogachiel Guard Station.

SIGNIFICANCE

The Indian Creek Guard Station Barn is not eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places. Within the last three years erosion of the Bogachiel River bank under a portion of the barn, plus neglect and subsequent deterioration of the structure, has caused severe loss of physical integrity of the building. In addition, the ensemble of buildings which originally included a residence, barn, woodshed and shelter is now altered due to the loss of some buildings, and the alteration of others. The guard station setting, thus, suffers from a loss of integrity of design, location, feeling, and association.



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INDIAN CREEK (BOGACHIEL) SHELTER



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Photos 1 and 2 Bogacheil Shelter as of 1989 - Photos from NWHikers.net by Don Abbott
Photo 3 is Bogacheil Shelter - Date Unkown - Posted by RodF on NWHikers.net and from files of Lyle Cowles

Lyle Cowles, while leading Olympic National Park trail crews, authored a series of "Trail Notes" for the Forks Forum and Peninsula Daily News in the early 1970s. These were collected into a short book, "Letters from Olympus - A Trailman's Almanac" in 1976, which includes these photos of a few of the many historic structures we've since lost from the Park.


Bogachiel Shelter

Source is Olympic NP archives Actually it is from Hal Rothman's newly accepted "American Eden: Administrative History of Olympic NP",
Furnished by RodF from NWHikers.net

Indian Creek Shelter

The the above structure was lost as the Bogachiel River changed course in the early 1990s.



From "Historic Building Inventory Olympic National Park Washington" by Gail E. H. Evans

The Indian Creek (Bogachlel) Shelter is one of four extant shelter structures along the Bogachlel River on the western slope of the Olympic Range. Constructed around 1931, it was among the earliest still-standing shelters, built by the Forest Service on the Olympic Peninsula. Peter Brandeberry, early Hoh, and later Bogachlel River settler, was seasonally employed by the Forest Service, and according to informant Jack Nattinger, may be the builder of all fourBogachlel shelters. Indeed, all four shelters share a somewhat unusual architectural feature: the major structural supports are of split cedar rather than peeled poles. Many Bogachlel River shelters were erected at or near back country guard stations: the Indian Creek Shelter stood near Indian Creek Guard Station; Flapjack Shelter stood near the Flapjack Guard Station (both shelters non extant); and the Hyak Shelter stood near the Hyak Guard Station. The U.S. Forest Service, who had jurisdiction over much of the area now included in Olympic National Park, from 1905 to 193f, initiated shelter construction in the late 1920s and the 1930s. Shelter construction coincided with a period of active trail construction by the Forest Service. Shelters were at first intended for use by crews building and maintaining trails and laying telephone lines for fire protection purposes. As part of the Forest Service's multiple land use management policy, trails and shelters served to encourage backcountry recreational use in the interior Olympics. In the 1930s, CCC corpsmen under the supervision of the Forest Service, accelerated shelter and trail construction activity. By the late 1930s nearly 90 shelters stood on the Olympic Peninsula. The greatest abundance of shelters built in the 1930s occurred on the north and east facing slopes of the Olympic Range. During this initial period of construction, shelters were built primarily in lowland valleys along major rivers and creeks, and sited at locations where the fishing and scenery was attractive. In some instances (particularly along the Bogachlel River), shelters supplanted or augmented existing ranger or guard stations, or were constructed at existing popular hunting or fishing "camps" (especially along the Elwha River). Typically, shelters stood from three to five miles apart on established trails. Architecturally, these Forest Service-built shelters dating from the 1930s were made from local materials obtained from the building site, were constructed of peeled-pole or split-cedar lumber sheathed with cedar shakes, and were capped with gable or shed, cedar-shake roofs. Shelters were three-sided, and roomy enough to provide several people protection from the inclement weather typical on the peninsula. Significant numbers of the late 1920s and 1930s Forest Service-type shelters were taken down in the mid 1970s, and in 1984 fewer than twenty remain standing. Rectangular in shape; measures 14' x 14'; 1 story; peeled-pole and rough split cedar wall construction sheathed with cedar shakes; open on one side; modified gable roof with cedar shakes; exposed, rough split timber rafters; half-log foundation; one window opening with corrugated green plastic, on rear wall; 2 bunkbeds along each side wall. Alterations: resheathing of roof in 1979; possibly new exterior walls; introduction of window in rear wall. Siting: located at the edge of a meadow near the edge of a bluff above the Bogachlel River; approx. 25' from the Bogachlel Guard Station.

SIGNIFICANCE

The Indian Creek (Bogachlel) Shelter, along with the three other extant shelters on the Bogachiel River, is eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places. This structure represents an important historical era in the management of the Olympic Peninsula public lands by the Forest Service, whose primary concerns in the 1920s and 1930s centered on fire protection of the extensive timber stands, and recreational development. This building is typical of the architectural type of shelter built by the Forest Service in the 1930s. Located approx. 5 miles distant from a neighboring shelter (or shelters), this shelter and its companions maintain the spatial distribution of shelters built by the Forest Service in the 1930s along lowland valleys of the interior mountains. This unbroken chain of shelters along the Bogachiel River, is not duplicated anywhere on the peninsula in 1984. Few, if any, alterations have been made to the structure, thus it possesses integrity of design, materials, workmanship, feeling, unit association.



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