spacer

ELWHA AREA



PLEASE CLICK ON ELWHA TITLES AND BE INFORMED




ALTAIRE KITCHEN spacer BOTTON CABIN spacer CAMP SNIDER spacer DODGER POINT FIRE LOOKOUT


ELKHORN RANGER STATION spacer ELKHORN SHELTER spacer ELWHA KITCHEN


ELWHA RANGER BUNKHOUSE spacer ELWHA RANGER RESIDENCE spacer ELWHA RANGER STATION


ELWHA RIVER SETTLEMENT spacer HALFWAY HOUSE spacer HAPPY HOLLOW SHELTER spacer HAYES RANGER STATION


HOTCAKE SHELTER spacer HUMES CABIN spacer MICHAEL CABIN spacer POACHING CABIN spacer REMANN CABIN spacer SKI LAIR


WILDER SHELTER



Return to ONP History Menu




spacer


































































spacer

ALTAIRE CAMPGROUND COMMUNITY KITCHEN



Click on photo to enlarge




Altaire Kitchen


From "Historic Building Inventory Olympic National Park Washington" by Gail E. H. Evans

The Altaire Campground Community Kitchen is a product of a nationwide Depression era work relief program. CCC corpsmen based at the Elwha CCC Camp erected the structure in the winter of 1934-35, as part of a plan to improve the already existing Altaire Camp. The local Port Angeles Evening News described the CCC activity in a 27 March 1935 issue of the newspaper: "Roads, stoves, a community kitchen, recreation trails, camping spots, and various other betterment's are included in the planned improvements. There's a splendid community kitchen, of rustic design, with a concrete floor and two 54-inch stoves built of rock and cement." Over the years the campground itself evolved as various improvements were made to accommodate changing needs and technologies in transportation modes and camping equipment. At an unknown date the Altaire Community Kitchen incurred some alterations. Including the placement of a metal protective sleeve on the lower portion of the supporting heavy posts, the removal of some wood railings between the supporting posts, and the minor modification of the stone fireplace.

Rectangular in shape; measures 27' x 17'; 1 story; large peeled log wall posts supporting a hip roof with cedar shakes; exposed peeled log rafters; poured concrete floor; lower portion of bench and table legs concrete. Alterations: addition of metal sleeve on lower portion of porch posts; change in fireplace; removal of some wood railings between posts. Siting located in forested campground 100' from the Elwha River.

SIGNIFICANCE

Altaire Campground Community Kitchen is eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places. Historically, the Altaire Kitchen is significant for its association with the nationwide work relief program of the CCC, which throughout the Depression years of the 1930s, spurred recreational development and use of publically owned, undeveloped lands in the U.S. Shelter kitchens are a visible expression of the CCC's efforts to advance recreational development in Northwest forests. In the Pacific Northwest, the U.S. Forest Service was the largest employer of CCC enrollees. In 1984 there are fewer than 50 remaining community kitchens on National Forest land in the Northwest. Of the extant community kitchens, no two are exactly alike; although there are two basic plans for these structures (octangular and rectangular) the details of each is unique. Architecturally, there are no known duplicates of the Altaire Kitchen in the Pacific Northwest. Although minor alterations have occurred to the Altaire structure, the essential design elements and materials are unchanged. The structure successfully embodies the philosophy and physical characteristics of rustic style architecture. Initiated and developed by the National Park Service beginning in the 1910s. The Altaire Community Kitchen possesses integrity of location, setting, workmanship, feeling, and association.



Return to Elhwa Area

spacer

































































spacer

CAMP SNIDER




Under the direction of the National Forest Service, CCC enrollees from Snider CCC Camp, built the octagonal community kitchen in the La Poel picnic area, during the winter of 1934-1935. Only the conrete foundation slab remains today. (Courtesy of Olympic National Park)
spacer
During the winter of 1934-1935, CCC enrollees from the National Forest Service CCC camp at Snider, completed reconstruction of the campground at La Poel on the south shore of Lake Crescent. In 1937, motoring vacationists filled the parking area near the comfort building. (Photo by N. Mortiboy, courtesy ofOlympic National Forest)


La Poel Resort on Lake Crescent was one of several auto camps on the Olympic Peninsula, which became a popular vacation retreat in the 1930s and 1940s. (Courtesy of Ellis Studio and Post Card Co.)
spacer
Visitors from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania enjoyed their meal at La Poel National Forest Campground in 1937. (Photo by M. Mortiboy, courtesy of Olympic National Forest)


LaPole Auto Park
LaPole Auto Park



From Historic Resource Study 1983 Olympic National Park
By Gail E. H. Evans and T. Allan Comp
Cultural Resources Division
National Park Service

National Forest Service Snider CCC Camp, F-16, located approximately ten miles west of Lake Crescent on U.S. Highway 101 (and now outside Olympic National Park, was established on the Olympic National Forest in the spring of 1933 (PAEN 1933, 10 June). Like the Elwha Camp, some of Camp Snider's greatest efforts were directed at building roads and trails, extending telephone lines, establishing lookout stations, and pursuing other activities related to the prevention and control of forest fires. Aimed at making sections of the Hoh River watershed more accessible in case of fire, Snider CCC Camp crews built fifteen miles of road along the Hoh River. Additional miles of protective roads were constructed in the area of a large burn that destroyed thousands of acres of timber in the Soleduck River drainage in 1907. Included in the Soleduck Burn project was a half mile extension of road to the Ovington Road, paralleling the north shore of Lake Crescent. Another road related project completed by the Camp Snider CCC company was the replacement of the Soldier's Bridge that crosses the Elwha River just below Altaire Campground (NFS ONF ca. 1937, n.d.).

Snider CCC work crews completed work on two campgrounds now situated within the present boundaries of Olympic National Park. During the winter of 1934-1935, Lapoel Campground, on the south shore of Lake Crescent, was completely reconstructed by CCC labor. Improvements included a rustic log octagonal community kitchen with a central, stone and masonary fireplace, a log and shake-sided comfort building, eighteen stone cooking furnaces (fireplaces) at individual camping spots, stone drinking fountains, tables and benches of half-round cedar logs, and rest rooms (NFS OLYM 1936, 189; NFS ONF ca. 1937, n.d.). (None of the CCC constructed structures are extant in 1983; however, the site at Lapoel is still maintained as a picnic area.) Situated on the banks of the Soleduck River about one-half mile above the hot springs Camp Snider CCC crews completed work on the Soleduck Campground. Overnight visitors at the campground could select their campsite from twenty-two individual campsites furnished with stoves and rustic tables with one piece cedar tops (NFS ONF ca. 1937, n.d.).

Finally, Snider CCC Camp enrollees worked with the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries and the State Game Commission to plant 77,000 trout in the higher lakes and headwaters of streams in Clallam County during the summer of 1933. The CCC assisted in transporting these fish by pack horse to remote locations in the Olympic Mountains, many of which are undoubtedly inside the present Olympic National Park boundaries (NFS ONF ca. 1937, n.d.).



Return to Elhwa Area

spacer

































































spacer

BOTTON CABIN



Click on photo to enlarge




Botton Cabin - 2008 spacer Botton Cabin - 2008 spacer Botton Cabin - 2008

Photos are by Bruce from NWHikers.net taken in 2008.

Botton Cabin


From "Historic Building Inventory Olympic National Park Washington" by Gail E. H. Evans

Erected by pioneer Elwha River settler Grant Humes, this cabin now commonly known as the Wilder Cabin, was built for outdoor enthusiast H.H. Botten in 1928-29. Of the four known private vacation cabins constructed on the Elwha River, the Botten Cabin was the last built. (The other known cabins are: Remann's Elk Lick Lodge (extant), Truman Drum's Cabin, and Dr. Ball's Cabin.) Henry H. Botten, a resident of Bremerton and later of Seattle, Washington, started coming to the Elwha to hunt before 1910. On one of his first trips up the Elwha, Botten met Grant Humes, and over the years they became close friends. (Humes willed many of his possessions to Botten.) Humes, a skilled craftsman, was commissioned by Botten to erect his hunting retreat. Writing to his brother on 9 July 1928, Humes described the Botten Cabin site: "It is a grand, wild spot and we plan to deface the forest but little and make no trail leading to it . . . A fine view is had of the mountains across the river and a husky creek tumbles down the gulch alongside the cabin site (Leitha Creek)". In addition to the main cabin, Humes erected a small "woodhouse" nearby for storing supplies and tools during the winter of 1928-29. H. H. Botten, a civil engineer by profession, worked for the Washington Survey and Rating Bureau for many years beginning in the 1910s, and eventually ascended to the position of assistant manager of the company in the 1930s. Botten died in 1953 at the age of 62. Margaret Botten, Henry's wife, continued to apply for special use permits for its use as a summer residence into the 1960s. The Botten Cabin is one of only two extant private hunting/fishing cabins in Olympic National Park in 1984. Rectangular in shape; measures approx. 17' x 11'; 1 story; log wall construction with dovetail corner joints; wood shakes ingable ends; gable roof sheathed with wood shakes; log foundation; multi-light casement windows; wood door (off center) on main facade; shake-wall shed approx. 1S' from cabin. Alterations: front porch extending across main facade damaged/destroyed by falling tree around 1970; roof resheathed in 1979; porch rebuilt in 1982. Siting: marshy, wooded shelf.

SIGNIFICANCE

The H. H. Botten Cabin is eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places. The building is an excellent example of log cabin construction featuring fine handcrafted, tenon-shaped corner notching. This cabin, along with the Remann Cabin, is the work of local Elwha resident Grant Humes, who gained a widespread reputation as a skilled hunter, packer, and guide. Henry H. Botten, for whom the cabin was built, was among the earlier regular visitors to the Elwha Valley. He was attracted to this undeveloped "wilderness" area of Washington for its hunting potential. The Botten Cabin represents an early era of recreational use of the interior Olympics. In 1984 the Botten Cabin is one of only two extant cabins inside park boundaries that was built for private recreational sport hunting/fishing use. H. H. Botten attained some prominence in the city of Seattle, his city of permanent residence, where he ascended to the position of chief engineer, and later assistant manager, at the Washington Survey and Rating Bureau. Except for relatively minor changes to the porch of the cabin, both the cabin and the shed nearby possess integrity of location, design, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling, and association. Much of the interior is intact and retains some of its early furnishings.



Return to Elhwa Area

spacer

































































spacer

DODGER POINT FIRE LOOKOUT



Click on photo to enlarge




Dodger Point Lookout, built by the National Forest Service several years earlier for the purpose of siting forest fires, served as an Aircraft Warning Service (AWS) observation post during World War II. Dodger Point is one of only two remaining AWS lookouts in Olympic National Park. (Photo by M. Stupich, courtesy of National Park Service, Pacific Northwest Region)


Dodger Point Fire Lookout spacer Dodger Point Fire Lookout spacer Dodger Point Fire Lookout spacer Dodger Point Fire Lookout - 2006

First one is by HJT from NWHikers.net taken between 1992 and 2005.
Second and third are by Rod F from NWHikers.net taken in 1992 and 1996.
Fourth one is by Rod F from NWHikers.net taken in 2006.

Dodger Point Fire Lookout - 2006 spacer Dodger Point Fire Lookout - 2006 spacer Dodger Point Fire Lookout Interior - 2006 spacer Dodger Point Fire Lookout Interior - 2006

All four are from Rod F from NWHikers.net taken in 2006.

Dodger Point Fire Lookout Phone - 2006 spacer Dodger Point Fire Lookout Phone - 2006 spacer Dodger Point Fire Lookout Interior Line Ring List - 2006

All three are from Rod F from NWHikers.net taken in 2006.

Faintly pencilled in on the Elwha ranger party line ring list is "Wavmilla Lodge". Could this have been "Doc" Ludden's "Geyser Valley House" hostelry, later operated by E. O. Michael 1927-37? Elwha history Or was it the Glines Canyon Dam or Elwha RS bunkhouse?

Dodger Point Fire Lookout - 2009 spacer Dodger Point Fire Lookout - 2009

The two are from Goats Gone Wild from NWHikers.net taken in 2009.

Dodger Point Fire Lookout spacer Dodger Point Fire Lookout


From "Historic Building Inventory Olympic National Park Washington" by Gail E. H. Evans

Constructed around 1933, Dodger Point Fire Lookout was one of dozens of fire detection stations built on mountaintops throughout the Pacific Northwest. The U.S. Forest Service, as well as the State of Washington built and manned fire lookouts beginning in the 1910s. The Forest Service, who was responsible for erecting scores of fire lookouts on the Olympic Peninsula, constructed what is believed to be the first permanent lookout on Finley Peak (on the present Quinault District of Olympic National Forest) in 1915. Throughout the West, and on the Olympic Peninsula, the real building boom in Forest Service-constructed lookouts climaxed between the late 1920s and the mid 1930s. Dodger Point Lookout was among many lookouts built on the peninsula built by the Forest Service during this peak in lookout construction. Ira Spring and Byron Fish, in their book Lookouts, document no less than 65 fire detection lookouts that at one time existed in the four-county area of the Olympic Peninsula. (Largely due to the changing technology resulting in the increased use of air surveillance, lookouts fell into disuse, and were removed or burned during the late 1960s and 1970s.) . In 1984, less than a dozen lookouts used at one time for fire detection, are in existence. Dodger is presently the only fire lookout in Olympic National Park that was built originally for the purpose of fire detection. (The two other lookouts in the park. Owl Mountain and Pyramid Peak, were originally constructed as aircraft warning stations during World War II.) Dodger Point is very likely the oldest standing fire lookout on the Olympic Peninsula. Dodger Point Lookout replaced an earlier lookout that stood on or near the site of the present lookout structure. The present lookout was named for "Dodger" Bender, the first lookout to man the new lookout building. CCC labor may have been used to construct the present lookout building. During the winter of 1942-43 Dodger Point Lookout was called into service as an Aircraft Warning Service station. Square in shape; measures approx. 15' x 15'; 1 story; wood-frame wall construction, with horizontal clapboard siding; gable roof with shake roofing (no eaves); stone foundation; 5 windows on each elevation (except on N.W. elevation where door takes up 1 bay): windows begin 3 1/2' from foundation up to beginning of gable; they are multi-light; door, multi-light in upper portion, lower portion paneled. Alterations: none apparent. Siting: on peak of Dodger Point with 180 degree view, above timber line, alpine meadow. Other: substantial shutters in deteriorating condition have been placed over all windows. Therefore, every elevation has these "shutters" of horizontal boards with battens and cross brace, secured by heavy bolts and hinged at the top; the interior has wooden floor; interior wall paneling is of narrow horizontal board up to windows and again on ceiling; windows (non-operable) reach from 2' off floor to molding at ceiling. There is a small opening in ceiling to attic, covered. simple built-in cupboard on N.E. wall, tables, bed, crank telephone, and other objects for previous function as lookout; maintenance equipment for cabin stored neatly.

SIGNIFICANCE

Dodger Point Lookout is eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places. It is one of only a few extant examples of fire lockouts on the Olympic Peninsula built during the most exuberant years of fire lookout construction. It represents an era of forest management when fire was considered a deadly enemy to forests, and great effort was expended to prevent and contain forest fires. Architecturally, Dodger Point is representative of a type of Forest Service designed lookout constructed throughout Northwest forests in the 1920s and early 1930s. Possibly more than any other lookout remaining on the Olympic Peninsula, Dodger Point retains a high degree of both exterior and interior physical integrity. Even its Osborn Firefinder is in place and intact. It possesses integrity of location, design, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling, and association.



Return to Elhwa Area

spacer

































































spacer

ELKHORN RANGER STATION



Click on photo to enlarge




Elkhorn Ranger Station

In the 1930s, Elwha Ranger Station and ranger residence were part of a complex of buildings built by the National Forest Service in the early 1930s, when they administered both Olympic National Forest and Mount Olympus National Monument. In 1983, this building ensemble appears much as it did fifty years ago. (Courtesy of Olympic National Forest)

Elkhorn Ranger Station spacer Elkhorn Ranger Station spacer Elkhorn Ranger Station spacer Elkhorn Ranger Station Horse Barn

First photo by HJT from NWHikers.net taken between 1992 and 2005 of Elkhorn Ranger Station.
Second and third photos by RodF from NWHikers.net taken in 1991 and 1992 of Elkhorn Range Station.
Fourth photo by RodF from NWHikers.net taken in 2002 of Elkhorn Ranger Station Horse Barn.


Elkhorn Ranger Station Barn spacer Elkhorn Ranger Station spacer Elkhorn Ranger Station spacer Elkhorn Ranger Station Shed

All photos by Goats Gone Wild from NWHikers.net taken in 2009 of Elkhorn Ranger Station, Barn and Shed.

Elkhorn Ranger Station

Elkhorn Ranger Station spacer Elkhorn Ranger Station spacer Elkhorn Ranger Station

Elkhorn Ranger Station. Photo's 1 and 2 by Hesmeister in 2011 from NWHikers.net

Photo 3 by Lotus54 in 1971 from NWHikers.net


From "Historic Building Inventory Olympic National Park Washington" by Gail E. H. Evans

The Elkhorn Guard Station Residence was built by labor provided by Depression-era work relief programs-namely the CWA and the CCC. The major portion of this peeled log structure was erected in the fall of 1933, just as the National Park Service was given jurisdiction of the Mt. Olympus National Monument, in which the building stood. CWA work crews worked under the supervision of the Forest Service when the largest portion of construction took place. The new guard station residence replaced a smaller log cabin that served as a guard station, and that stood near the edge of the meadow close to the existing shelter. (This structure was subsequently burned.) A barn with approx. five acres of open pasture and a shelter completed the guard station complex in late 1933. This structure is one of numerous administrative buildings constructed by the U.S. Forest Service on the Olympic Peninsula. Beginning in 1905 the Forest Service gained jurisdiction of nearly 1.5 million acres of prime timberland on the peninsula, then included in the Olympic Forest Reserve. During the next thirty-three years, a network of administrative structures facilitating the forest rangers and guards (seasonal assistants) in patrolling this immense territory evolved. Ranger stations, usually erected at more accessible front country sites, and guard stations, typically built at back country locations only reached by trail, played an important role in the Forest Service's efforts to pursue its multiple resource land use policy. Before 1911 only a few ranger and guard stations were built (including Storm King, Interrorem and Louella). But as the ranks of forest personnel swelled, and trails were built into the rugged interior, more stations were added. Often these ranger and guard stations consisted of living/sleeping quarters, a fire cache, a tool/wood shed, a shelter, and sometimes a horse barn and corral. With the arrival of the CCC on the peninsula in the 1930s. Forest Service administered lands witnessed a great boom in fire prevention and recreation development. The construction of Forest Service ranger and guard stations reached epoch proportions. By the end of the 1930s no fewer than twelve ranger stations and nearly thirty guard stations stood in existence on the Olympic Peninsula. Many of these 1930s Forest Service built administrative buildings embodied physical characteristics reflecting the Rustic Style, a style that advocated employing design materials, and sitings that were closely integrated with the surrounding landscape. The pine tree symbol identified with both the Forest Service and the CCC became widely used during the 1930s. With the creation of Olympic National Park in 1938 and the gradual introduction of air surveillance in fire management following World War II, ranger and guard station construction subsided. More recently many existing structures have been demolished. In 1984 only four Forest Service ranger stations and eight guard stations are extant on the Olympic Peninsula. The Elkhorn Guard Station is one of five stations now standing in Olympic National Park.

SIGNIFICANCE

This building, as well as the barn, woodshed, and shelter, all standing at the Elkhorn Guard Station, are eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places as part of a total building ensemble. The U.S. Forest Service constructed all four buildings between 1930 and 1934, at a time of exuberant construction and development of backcountry areas on the Olympic Peninsula. Widely known since the 1890s, as a natural hiking route into the interior of the Olympic Range, and for its excellent trout fishing, the Elwha River was singled out by the Forest Service as a prime target for recreational development. In addition to the historical significance of this four structure-building ensemble, the Elkhorn Guard Station Residence is an excellent example of Rustic Style architecture, which became a hallmark of 1930s Depression-era groups, such as the CWA and the CCC. Of the four buildings in this group, only the Elkhorn Shelter has undergone considerable loss of physical integrity through residing. As a total group, however, the Elkhorn building ensemble and its immediate surroundings have experienced minimal alteration since the 1930s. The Elkhorn Guard Station building group and surrounding grounds possess integrity of location, design, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling, and association. Only one other Forest Service backcountry guard station (North Fork Quinault Guard Station) on the Olympic Peninsula, dating from the 1930s, has retained its integrity as a building group.



Return to Elhwa Area

spacer

































































spacer

ELKHORN SHELTER



Click on photo to enlarge




Elkhorn Shelter spacer Elkhorn Shelter spacer Elkhorn Shelter spacer Elkhorn Shelter

First photo by HJT from NWHikers.net taken between 1992 and 2005 of Elkhorn Shelter.
Second, third and fourth photos by RodF from NWHikers.net taken in 1991,1992 and 2002 of Elkhorn Shelter.

Elkhorn Shelter - 1 spacer Elkhorn Shelter - 2 spacer Elkhorn Shelter - 3

Elkhorn Shelter

Elkhorn Shelters. Photo by Hesmeister in 2011 from NWHikers.net


From "Historic Building Inventory Olympic National Park Washington" by Gail E. H. Evans

Built in the early 1930s, the Elkhorn Shelter was one of dozens of trail shelters erected by the U.S. Forest Service in the 1930s on the Olympic Peninsula. Known for its excellent trout fishing and popularity as a hiking route into the interior Olympic Mountains, the Elwha River was the site of six trail shelters, all constructed before 1941. (The others included Lillian, Baltimore, Little Elkhorn, Hayes, and Chicago shelters.) The Elkhorn Shelter is the only shelter dating from the 1930s that remains standing on the Elwha River. The U.S. Forest Service, who had jurisdiction over much of the area now included in Olympic National Park from 1905 to 1933, initiated shelter construction in the late 1920s and the 1930s. Shelter construction coincided with a period of active trail construction by the Forest Service. Some were at first intended for use by crews building and maintaining trails and laying telephone lines for fire protection purposes. As part of the Forest Service's multiple use management policy, trails and shelters served to encourage backcountry recreational use in the interior Olympics. In the 1930s, CCC corpsmen under the supervision of the Forest Service, accelerated shelter and trail construction activity. By the late 1930s nearly 90 shelters stood on the Olympic Peninsula, The greatest abundance of shelters built in the 1930s occurred on the north and east facing slopes of the Olympic Range. During this initial period of construction, shelters were built primarily in lowland valleys along major rivers and creeks, and sited at locations where the fishing and scenery was attractive. In some instances (particularly along the Bogachlel River), shelters replaced or augmented existing ranger or guard stations, - or were constructed at existing popular hunting or fishing "camps" (especially along the Elwha River-). Typically, shelters stood from three to five miles apart on established trails. Architecturally, these Forest Service built shelters dating from the 1930s were made from local materials obtained from the building site, were constructed of peeled-pole or split-cedar lumber sheathed with cedar shakes, and were capped with gable or shed, cedar-shake roofs. Shelters were three-sided, and roomy enough to provide several people protection from the inclement weather typical on the peninsula. Significant numbers of the late 1920s and 1930s Forest Service-type shelters were taken down in the mid 1970s, and in 1984 fewer than twenty remain standing. Square in shape; measures 14' x 14'; 1 story; pole wall construction with board and batten siding; modified gable roof with cedar shakes; exposed pole rafters; stone foundation; open on one side; interior wood floor; bunk beds along sidewalls. Alterations: earlier shake walls replaced with board and batten siding possibly in the mid-1950s; wood floor also constructed in mid 1950s. Siting: near middle of an open meadow approx. 100' east of Elwha River.

SIGNIFICANCE

This building, as well as the barn, wood shed, and residence, all standing at the Elkhorn Guard Station, are eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places as part of a total building ensemble. The U.S. Forest Service constructed all four buildings between 1930 and 1934, at a time of exuberant construction and development of backcountry areas on the Olympic Peninsula. Widely known since the 1890s as a hiking route into the interior of the Olympic Range, and for its excellent trout fishing, the Elwha River was singled out by the Forest Service as a prime target for recreational development. In addition to the historical significance of this four-structure building ensemble, the Elkhorn Guard Station Residence is an excellent example of Rustic Style architecture, which became a hallmark of 1930s Depression-era groups such as the CWA and the CCC. Of the four buildings in this group, only the Elkhorn Shelter has undergone considerable loss of physical integrity through residing. As a total group, however, the Elkhorn building ensemble and its immediate surroundings have experienced minimal alteration since the 1930s. The Elkhorn Guard Station building group and surrounding grounds possess integrity of location, design, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling, and association. Only one other Forest Service backcountry guard station (North Fork Quinault Guard Station) on the Olympic Peninsula dating from the 1930s has retained its integrity as a building group.



Return to Elhwa Area

spacer

































































spacer

ELWHA KITCHEN



Click on photo to enlarge




Elwha Kitchen


From "Historic Building Inventory Olympic National Park Washington" by Gail E. H. Evans

A product of a Depression-era work relief program, the Elwha Campground Community Kitchen was constructed by CCC corpsmen based at the Elwha CCC Camp, presumably in the opening months of 1935. According to the local Port Angeles Evening News newspaper, a 27 March 1935 article noted: "In the past few months, Elwha Corps crews have concentrated on improvements on . . . the Elwha campground . . .. W.H.'Bill' Vallad, Elwha district ranger, and George Balsiger, superintendent of Elwha CCC Camp, are especially proud of the results shown in the Elwha campground, which they believe will attract hundreds of picnickers and campers this year . . .. Visitors will find first an attractive rustic structure." Although the Elwha Campground was established prior to the mid 1930s (probably in the early 1930s) the CCC made significant improvements to the Elwha facility during the winter of 1934-35. In addition to the construction of the community kitchen, the CCC provided swings and a merry-go-round for children and horseshoe courts for adults. During the same winter CCC crews from the Elwha CCC Camp and the Snider CCC Camp erected shelter kitchens at Altaire Campground on the Elwha River and the LaPoel Campground on the south shore of Lake Crescent. Over the years the campground has been renovated on at least one occasion. At an unknown date peeled-pole railings between the major supporting log posts of the shelter kitchen, were removed. The lower portion of the log posts has been removed and replaced with round concrete piers. Octagonal in shape: measures 18' x 20' in diameter: 1 story: wood posts supporting octagonal hip roof with wood shakes: concrete slab floor; coursed stone-in-mortar central chimney. Alterations: base of supporting posts replaced with concrete. Alterations: original wood railings between posts removed, possibly in the late 1940s. Siting: located in forested campground near the Elwha River.

SIGNIFICANCE

Elwha Community Kitchen is eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places. Historically, the Elwha Community Kitchen is significant for its association with the nationwide work relief program of the CCC, which throughout the Depression years of the 1930s, spurred recreational development and use of publically owned, undeveloped lands in the U.S. Community kitchens are a visible expression of the CCC's efforts to advance recreational development in Northwest forests. In the Pacific Northwest, the U.S. Forest Service was the largest employer of CCC enrollees. In 1984 there are fewer than fifty remaining community kitchens on National Forest land in the Northwest. Of the extant community kitchens, no two are exactly alike; although there are two basic plans for these structures (octangular and rectangular), the details of each are unique. Architecturally, there are no known duplicates of the Elwha Community Kitchen in the Pacific Northwest. Although minor alterations have occurred to the Elwha structure, the essential design elements and materials are unchanged. The structure successfully embodies the philosophy and physical characteristics of Rustic Style architecture initiated and developed by the National Park Service beginning in the 1910s. The Elwha Community Kitchen possesses integrity of location, setting, workmanship, feeling, and association



Return to Elhwa Area

spacer

































































spacer

ELWHA RANGER STATION



Click on photo to enlarge




In the 1930s, Elwha Ranger Station and ranger residence were part of a complex of buildings built by the National Forest Service in the early 1930s, when they administered both Olympic National Forest and Mount Olympus National Monument. In 1983, this building ensemble appears much as it did fifty years ago. (Courtesy of Olympic National Forest)
spacer
Carpenters extended the Elwha Ranger Station repair shop in the mid 1930s. (Courtesy of Olympic National Forest)



Elwha Ranger Station spacer Elwha Ranger Station spacer Elwha Ranger Station Office


From "Historic Building Inventory Olympic National Park Washington" by Gail E. H. Evans

Constructed in 1932, the Elwha Ranger Station Office was built two years after the establishment of the Forest Service Elwha ranger station district in 1930. This building replaced a smaller wood-frame building that stood several feet to the south of the present office building, which was used temporarily as a ranger station until the completion of the existing ranger office. One year after the ranger office was constructed, CCC corpsmen based at the Elwha CCC Camp (located several hundred yards to the south of the ranger station) built a front porch on the office building. In 1935, CCC enrollees moved the ranger station office building slightly and completed landscaping in the area. Since 1932, the Elwha Ranger Station Office building has served as the base of administrative operations for the Elwha district, at first under the jurisdiction of the Forest Service, and after 1940, under the jurisdiction of the National Park Service. Irregular in-shape; major blocks measure 16' x 16' and 24' x 16'; 1 story plus attic; wood-frame with horizontal, half-log siding (alternating two widths) and shakes in gable ends; gable roof with cross gable sheathed with cedar shakes; concrete foundation with daylight basement; 1 over 1, double-hung sash windows with plain architrave trim. Alterations: building moved and addition constructed in 1935; exterior walls possibly resheathed before 1935. Siting: located on edge of opening approx. 20' from the road; part of the Elwha Ranger Station group. Building originally unpainted and with shingle roof.

SIGNIFICANCE

The Office is one of fourteen buildings in the Elwha Ranger Station building ensemble. Collectively these buildings are eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places. Architecturally, the office building embodies physical characteristics typical of administrative Forest Service structures constructed throughout the Northwest in the 1920s and 1930s. Additionally, the building retains integrity of location (since the mid 1930s), design, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling, and association. Historically, the office building possesses significance since it is a key building in the complex of Forest Service administrative buildings and is, thus, strongly associated with both the Forest Service and the Park Service resource management of a large area included in the Elwha River drainage.



Return to Elhwa Area

spacer

































































spacer

ELWHA RIVER SETTLEMENT



Click on photo to enlarge




In the early 1920s, the home of settler Grant Humes was the last homestead on the Elwha River. (Photo by A. Curtis, courtesy of Washington State Historical Society)

Humes Barn



From Historic Resource Study 1983 Olympic National Park
By Gail E. H. Evans and T. Allan Comp
Cultural Resources Division
National Park Service

The Elwha River and its tributaries reach deep into the heart of the Olympic Mountains encircling Mount Olympus and its jagged, snow-capped neighbors on the east and south. The Elwha River extends farther inland than most major Olympic Peninsula rivers, and its watershed takes in 175 thousand acres. Notable early exploring expeditions led by Joseph O'Neil in 1885 and James Christie in 1689-1690, found the Elwha Valley a natural pathway into the Olympic Interior, and the river provided an original route of entry into the mountains (Wood 1968, 111). In 1885, the lower Elwha was considered one of the oldest settled parts of Clallam County (Report of the Secretary of the Interior 1885, 1091).

Settlement in the upper reaches of the Elwha River Valley, as in other interior peninsula valleys, did not occur until the late 1880s and early 1890s. In 1879, the Elwha south of Port Angeles was totally void of inhabitants (DNR Maps and Surveys). In 1865, when the party led by Joseph O'Neil traveled along the upper brushy slopes to the east of the Elwha River, the party found many traces of hunters and a "little old log cabin . . . under the brow of a protecting hill" (NPS OLYM 1885, 10). No other signs of white occupancy along the Elwha River were mentioned in 0 ' Neil's account of the expedition (NPS OLYM. 1865, 10).

By the late 1880s however, two Norwegian brothers, Henry S. and Jake Hansen, were living in the upper Elwha Valley. Soon after abandoning their original plan to claim land farther up the river, they settled on plots near the confluence of Indian Creek and the Elwha in T.30 N., R. 7 W. Sec. 29 (just north of the present Park boundary). Henry Hansen selected a small clearing on the south side of Indian Creek that had been taken up by an earlier settler (Forsberg 1971, 322; DNR Maps and Surveys). Slightly to the east of Henry Hansen's home site near the mouth of the Little River, William MacDonald built a cabin (in Sec. 28) on the east bank of the Elwha River. (Although the most prevalent spelling of this name is "McDonald" and it appears as such in numerous books, articles, and maps, a letter written and signed by William MacDonald asking Edmond S. Meany [writer for the Seattle Press newspaper] for compensation for assisting Press party members, shows the spelling as "MacDonald." Robert L. Wood brought this to general public attention in his book Across the Olympic Mountains; The Press Expedition 1889-90 [1967]) In the winter of 1889-1890, the Press Expedition, led by James Christie, encountered MacDonald's hospitality as the Press party was preparing for its navigation up the Elwha. Members of the Press party described MacDonald's cabin and clearing as the "outpost of civilization" (Barnes and Christie 198la, 167, 172, 182; DNR Maps and Surveys). William MacDonald shortly afterward (1891) became the first postmaster in the upper Elwha, and the hollowed-out cedar stump which served as the original "McDonald" post office was a local landmark for many years (Ramsey 1978, 98; Forsberg 1971, 323-24). Henry Stringham succeeded MacDonald as postmaster in 1898 when he purchased the MacDonald homestead. Paul Laufeld and his family of four soon after replaced Stringham at MacDonald's Little River clearing.

In the early 1890s, others came and settled in the upper Elwha Valley near Indian Creek and Little River. South of Indian Creek and roughly one and one-half miles north of the present Olympic National Park boundary were the home sites of Magnus Miller and Edwin Herrick. Miller and Herrick built their homes in 1891, about one-half mile from the West Bank of the Elwha River (Forsberg 1971, 322; DNR Maps and Surveys). Herrick, a veteran of the Civil War, constructed a log house and later conducted a small grocery business on the Elwha. His son, Burt Herrick, became a guide and packer for hunting and fishing parties into the Olympic Mountains (Forsberg 1971, 324). On the East Side of the Elwha River, near the Little River, Gus Raull and Harry Coventon selected homestead sites in the early and mid 1890s. Coventon was locally known for his work on several road and bridge building projects in the area, including the 1909 wood and steel Howe truss bridge built over the Elwha River south of the mouth of the Little River (Forsberg 1971; 322-23; DNR Maps and Surveys).

By late 1893, General Land Office Surveyor Henry Pitch located only three settlers in the township south of the Elwha junction of Little River and Indian Creek, now included in Olympic National Park (T. 29 N., R. 7 W.) (DNR Maps and Surveys). Around 1889, Warriner Smith built a cabin in the rugged, heavily forested slopes on the East Side of the Elwha River near the mouth of Madison Creek. In December 1889, the Press expedition visited Smith's vacant cabin intent on constructing a boat that would carry the party deep into the Olympic range. Quite possibly, Warriner Smith's sawmill, down river from his homestead cabin, provided the lumber for the intrepid Gertie (Barnes and Christie 1961a, 171; 1981b, 315, 320). Press party members invited Smith to Gertie's christening ceremony in late December, however, as Press leader James Christie wrote "business deprived us of the pleasure of his company, but he sent on a box of good cigars, which we fully appreciated" (Barnes and Christie 1981 a, 167). For ten days in early February 1890, Press party members made themselves at home on Smith's Madison Creek claim while they waited for clear weather before continuing their trek. Expedition members described Smith's uninhabited cabin as log "with spaces between the logs from one to three inches with a loose sheeting inside of cedar shakes, a breezy and well ventilated cabin for this kind of weather" (Seattle Press T890a, 16 July). Proceeding slowly up the Elwha River on a faint old trail, the Press expedition encountered one other evidence of white habitation on the Elwha River-the clearing and unoccupied cabin of Dr. A. 8. Lull about 100 yards from the Elwha River somewhere near the mouth of Griff Creek (Barnes and Christie 1981b, 317, 321). In the winter of 1889-1890, Dr. Lull's Griff Creek clearing and cabin were apparently the last outpost on the upper Elwha.

Although hunters, trappers, and occasional miners probably wandered through sections of the upper Elwha, now within the present boundaries of Olympic National Park, the next known settlers on the upper Elwha did not arrive until the ml d-1890s. From Tacoma, Washington, Ernst Krause, a German immigrant and painter, and his wife Meta established a log house, barn, garden, and orchard in a low valley shelf on the east bank of the Elwha River where they kept cows, horses, mules, pigs, and chickens. The Krause's were building a new home and clearing more land in the area when a slash fire they were tending swept out of control and consumed their homestead buildings and animals. (Apparently, at least one Krause cabin remained standing). Around the turn of the century, Grant, Will and Martin Humes and Ward Sanders spent time there. In 1932 Grant Humes and others destroyed this cabin [Dalton Collection 1916-1933.] Writing to his brother Will Humes [in letters dated 21 May 1917 and 28 September 1938], Grant Humes referred to the abandoned Krause cabin.) Discouraged, the Krauses returned to Tacoma (NPS OLYM 1975, n.d.; Dalton 1982). A small, grassy opening with small hummocks of disturbed ground and scattered fruit trees are all that remain at Krause Bottom today.

At about that same time, William Anderson homesteaded on a large acreage of property spanning the Elwha River near the confluence with Haggerty Creek. Over a period of nearly twenty years, Will (or Billy) Anderson cleared land, planted crops and fruit trees, and grazed cattle on a section of valley bottom land along the west side of the Elwha River. Back from the water's edge on a terraced shelf, Anderson constructed a large barn, house, several outbuildings, and fencing (Dalton 1962). In 1911 the Anderson "ranch" consisted of sixteen acres of cleared land, of which four acres were slashed. One acre was planted in bearing fruit trees and the remainder was used for hay production and pasture. Near his property, Anderson and a man named Haggerty constructed a wood bridge across the Elwha River. According to a letter written by Grant Humes on 4 May 1927, Will Anderson was gone from his property by 1912 (Dalton 1982; Dalton Collection 1916-1933).

In mid-fall of 1897 three easterners arrived in Port Angeles: two brothers. Will and Martin Humes, and their cousin. Ward Sanders. Reared on a farm in upstate New York, they came from a family that guided and packed hunting parties in the Adirondack Mountains. Their purpose, however, was not to farm but to mine for gold, either on the peninsula or, possibly, in Alaska. Immediately after settling temporarily in an unoccupied rancher's cabin about thirteen miles south of Port Angeles on the Elwha River, Ward Sanders dug into a ledge outcropping, hoping to find gold. Even while great mineral wealth along the Elwha River seemed doubtful, all three of the party were impressed by the abundance of deer, elk, and fish in and around the Elwha. Will Humes wrote to his family on 5 December 1897: *We think we could do well hunting, even if no gold is found." Will also observed that "there is no end to good pasture land on both sides of the mountains here," and that "if we find a place suitable, we will settle down in the sheep business" {NPS OLYM 1897-1911, 1934). By March 1898, Martin, Will, and Ward had taken up ranches in the upper Elwha; Ward and Will selected adjoining parcels between Idaho Creek and Lillian River; Martin's land was two to three miles upriver. Immediately, Martin and Ward began clearing land in preparation for gardens. Ward Sanders described their early settlement activities in a letter to his East Coast cousins dated 6 March 1896 (NPS OLYM 1897-19T1, 1934).

Long, descriptive letters with prolific details about elk, deer, bear, and "cat" hunting expeditions on the wooded slopes of the Elwha River were sent back to the Humes family in New York during Martin, Will, and Ward's first two years on the Elwha. An avid hunter and lover of the outdoors, a third Hume's brother was attracted to the Elwha country. In late 1899, Grant Humes came to the Elwha Valley (NPS OLYM 1897-1911, 1934).

Shortly after Grant's arrival on the Elwha, Martin Humes left the area and in 1905 died in Idaho. In a letter written on 7 January 1905, Will Humes relayed the sad news of Martin's death to Myron Humes (NPS OLYM 1897-1911, 1934). Ward Sanders apparently stayed with his cousins for a few years and then also left, occasionally returning to visit. Soon after Grant arrived, he and brother Will built a cabin of hewn logs on the east side of the Elwha, north of the confluence with Antelope Creek (Dalton 1982). While hunting for elk, deer, and cougar continued as a major fall sport, subsistence, and cash-producing activity. Will and Grant spent summers farming. On 20 February 1901, Will Humes described his farming plans for the next year:

I am going to be pretty busy this summer farming, as I am getting in readiness to keep beef cattle. Am going to build a barn, and plow up from 4 to 5 acres of new ground. Shall sow wheats and oats. Am also going to seed down a piece of alfalfa. This is not much of a corn country, 8ut it is a great grass and clover country. Last year I raised oats, wheat and grass enough to winter our six horses up to about March 1st, but this year I want to raise enough to winter as many as 15 head, though expect to have some cattle then (NPS OLYM 1897-1911, 1934).

A year and a half later Will reported to his brother in New York that he had erected a barn of pole construction with boards and shakes split from logs (NPS OLYM 1897-1911, 1934).

With the increased number of mountaineering and sport hunting groups entering the Olympic interior, both Will and Grant engaged in an active packing business. In 1907 both Will and Grant assisted in packing and guiding The Mountaineers from Seattle, and the Parker, Browne, and dark parties to the Elwha Basin and up the slopes of Mount Olympus {NPS OLYM 1897-1911, 1934; Browne 1908, 195-200). {Writing to his brother on 10 November 1907, Will Humes described his involvement with packing the Parker, Clark, and Browne party up the flank of Mount Olympus). The packing business during the fall hunting seasons was especially lively in the 1900s. Will Humes wrote in a letter dated 24 March 1911 that he and Grant were "pretty well-known by outdoor and sports enthusiasts from Seattle who gave them most of their business. In the same letter Hill Humes reported that he and brother Grant were planning to enlarge their house to provide expanded accommodations for summer and fall packing parties (NPS OLYM 1897-191 T, 1934). During the long and damp winter months. Will Humes noted In letters dated 10 November 1907 and again on 6 December 1910, he and Grant often engaged in clearing and opening sections of trail along the Elwha River to facilitate the movement of pack horses (NPS OLYM 1897-1911, 1934).

About 1916, Will Humes returned to the East when the Humes' father died, and he never returned to live permanently on the Elwha River. Grant Humes remained at "Humes Ranch" pursuing a life of farming, hunting, packing, and guiding, even as the community of settlers downstream grew larger and the flow of traffic on the Elwha trail increased. Humes augmented his supply of hay from the field near his cabin with grass sown and harvested on the old Anderson ranch. Each year Grant harvested a variety of vegetables from his garden. In the 1920s he often hunted for cougar in the mountains around the Elwha. Packing and guiding continued to provide Humes with cash income even when other lower Elwha River residents, such as Burt Herrick and DeWitt Sisson, joined the trade. Grant, apparently, continued to pack for the Seattle Mountaineers hiking club and his involvement with members of this group led to a long acquaintance with noted Northwest photographer Asahel Curtis. After Will Humes returned to the East, Grant often hired assistants to help with packing in the summer and fall. As the Elwha River drainage became more and more a recreation area for outdoors people. Grant was sometimes hired to construct trails and seasonal hunting and fishing cabins (Dalton Collection 1916-1933).

Occasionally, Grant Humes made trips "out of the woods" to Seattle for a change of environment. Writing from Seattle to his brother Will in June, 1928, Grant commented on the city life he observed; "Everybody in the town is slaving for money-more money; always more. Yet they can only buy trash with it-not health, not youth, and all too often not contentment. The life they lead has no attraction for me and I am glad to get back to the cool, green woods and the peace and quiet and beauty to be enjoyed there" (Dalton Collection 1916-1933).

After several months of falling health, Grant Humes died in Port Angeles in 1934. Years later the Park Service removed the barn (in 1958) and structures adjacent to the cabin (in 1970). The legacy of the Humes family and the way of life of these early Elwha Valley residents are represented by the extant Humes cabin (circa 1900) now listed in the National Register, of Historic Places.


"Doc" Ludden settled just half a mile below Grant Humes on the Elwha River. This 1914 photograph shows his house and a collection of outbuildings. (Courtesy of Olympic National Park)



The Krause family, Will Anderson, and the Humes brothers were not the only early residents who settled in the upper Elwha River Valley. A latecomer to the upper Elwha, "Doc" A. Ludden, arrived on the east bank of the river around 1906. Abandoning a respectable life as a Tacoma city policeman, Ludden came to the Elwha when well-along in years and established a home for himself on a terraced piece of land about one mile north of the Humes ranch. After first erecting a peeled-pole and shake-sided cabin, he gradually constructed more buildings on his raised bench of land, eventually creating a tight complex of structures composed of assorted angles and dimensions. Roofs and outer walls were sheathed with split-cedar shakes. Characteristically ingenious and thrifty, "Doc" Ludden created windows from discarded photographic plates, furnished his dwelling with cleverly designed peeled pole tables and chairs, and crafted implements and ornaments by hand. On cleared land around his buildings, Ludden planted various fruit trees-apple, quince, plum, prune, and pear-as well as raspberry and loganberry bushes, wheat, herbs, potatoes, kale, pumpkins, and other vegetables. He experimented with the horticulture of tobacco. Ludden may have been best known for his apiary industry. Ludden's bees provided him with quantities of honey, which he sealed in cast-off milk tins. The beeswax he made into candles. On the outside wall of one of his buildings, Ludden advertised his home site as "Geyser Valley House and Apiary." (The term "Geyser Valley" was first applied to the upper Elwha Valley by the Press party expedition in 1889-1890.) Ludden advertised himself as the Geyser Honey Man (NPS OLYM 1900-1911, 1934).

Signs of all kinds. In fact, were affixed to the outside walls of the various buildings in "Doc" Ludden's complex. Fashioned from flattened tin cans, his ubiquitous signs advertised "Meals and Bed," "Luddens," Honey," "Vegetables," "Bread," "Stereoscopic Views," "Hair Cutting," "Root Beer, " "Wine," and much more. As the Elwha River trail grew more heavily traveled with outdoors enthusiasts, "Doc" Ludden's establishment served as a quaint hostelry for hikers, hunters, and fishermen. To advertise all that the Geyser Valley House had to offer, Ludden used a hand printing press to produce business cards and stationary. A sampling of printed verse on one of Ludden's personalized envelopes read: "FISH AND GAME TIS PLINTY, BE GORRY, AND, ITS A FOINE TABLE WE HAVE TODAY OR TOMORRY." "Doc" A. Ludden left his home on the Elwha in late summer 1927 and died in Port Angeles three months later. Nearby Ludden's Peak is named after him (Dalton Collection 1916-1933; NPS OLYM 1900-1911, 1934; NPS OLYM Historic photo collection). Although settling in the Elwha Valley, as in any rural and remote area of the Olympic Peninsula, required a variety of survival skills. "Doc" A. Ludden, more than others, seemed to capitalize on his life-style as a unique, self-styled Renaissance man. Nothing remains of *Doc" Ludden's tight cluster of buildings. Nearby, a single cabin now stands on the south side of the Ludden clearing. E. O. Michael lived on the property after "Doc" Ludden died, and occupied the vacated Geyser Valley house. Michael was locally known for his marksmanship hunting cougar. In a taped Interview with Port Angeles resident Russell Dalton, former National Forest and Park Service employee Jay Gormley reported that he, Gus Peterson, and E. O. Michael built the cabin now known as Michael's Cabin around 1937. Grant Humes frequently mentioned Michael's whereabouts and activities in his letters to his brother Win (Dalton Collection 1916-1933}.



Return to Elhwa Area

spacer