V.2.25
Period VI: 1952 - 1963


General Description:

Due to increasing recreational demand, in the early 1960's park administration decided to build fifteen new shelters. In January of 1962, as part of the Mission 66 master plan for the Park, a Visitor Use brief was prepared. In that brief under the section entitled "Preservation and Use of the Central Back County Mountain Wilderness", it was stated, "Shelters will be available for visitor use as an emergency facility (sic) for protection from the elements in extreme weather (This policy was restated in the 1978 Shelter Criteria Report). During other times, they will be available as a community facility (sic) for the common storage of food and supplies by all parties in the vicinity when more than one party is present. Appropriate regulations (sic) will be enacted and signs posted at each shelter to explain these uses and to prohibit the monopolizing of a shelter by one party when others are present." 1

Period 6

Figure No. 1: Elk Lake Shelter still has its sign as an "Emergency Shelter" from the policy developed in the Mission 66 Master Plan and restated in the 1978 Shelter Criteria Report.

Construction for the shelters was contracted out and starting in June of 1963, eight new shelters were erected in the backcountry by October. The design is attributed to a sketch "on the back of an envelope" by the park Division Chief. The work was done with chainsaws, not utilizing any mill attachments, but snapping chalk lines and free hand ripping out the timbers. Most of the shelter roofs were constructed of 42" hand-split shakes, unlike the 36" used most frequently on the earlier Forest Service shelters. These shelters continued the pattern of the previous period by having the front roof slope projecting past the ridgepole. 2

The seven remaining planned shelters were never completed, most likely due to the passage the following year (1964) of the Wilderness Act, a policy that would forever change the shelter program.

Thus, the shelters of 1963 represent the last variation of shelter design in the Park. They also represent the fourth variation of a new shelter design constructed by the National Park Service from the late 1930's to early 1960's to specifically address the increase of national recreational activity.

The 1960's shelter design had the same low profile shape of the previous design, but was slightly taller with a larger floor area, returning to the 14' x 14' footprint similar to the early Forest Service L-4 shelters. It was a three-sided structure with an open front. The gable roof had a long slope to the back, and a short overhang at the front. It varies though from the previous design generation in the way it was constructed. The lower section of the three exterior walls consisted of vertical log slabs supported by a round or squared log sill. The log slabs or squared timbers rose to a height of the back wall on all three sides. The gable end walls were then constructed of stacked 6" x 6" chain-sawn timbers, trimmed to form the slope. The 7" x 7" ridge beam and the 7" x 7" beam over the front opening were notched into the gable walls. 5" x 5" sawn rafters spanned from ridge on both slopes. 4" x 4" sawn planks were laid over the rafters for shingle nailers. The shingles were 42" long. Similar to the previous design, upright logs support the front opening beam and the front sidewalls were stabilized by engaged log slabs.

These new shelters, with their heavy timber walls and sawn roof members are more robust and stout than any of the previous National Park Service designs. The roof overhangs are deep and the walls solid. They were conceived to withstand both visitors and weather.


V.2.26
Elk Lake Shelter

Introduction:

Constructed in July of 1963, Elk Lake incorporated both full log, log slab, and sawn timber in its construction.

Period 6

Figure No. 1: Elk Lake Shelter, July 2004.

Originally there were a pair of shelters of this design built at Elk Lake, noted as shelters #1 and #2 in some references and "upper" and "lower" shelters in other files. Both are included in the 1974 shelter survey as being in excellent condition. The November 1980 shelter survey lists only the "upper" shelter and that roof repairs were completed in the summer of 1980. In the 1994 shelter survey, it is recorded that the Elk Lake shelter #998 was destroyed in 1976 and the current shelter is identified as Bldg #999.

Site:
  • (See General observations)

    The site is in an open clearing with a gentle side slope. Modest vegetation growth is present on the back wall and one side wall. The grade has grown against the uphill sidewall, covering the sill log and lower ends of the wall slabs.

    Recommendation:

    Regrading of site for moisture management and sill log exposure required. Site vegetation should be cleared.

Period 6

Figure No. 2: Elk Lake Shelter, July 2004.

Sill Logs:
  • The sill logs are roughly 11" and are cut on three sides (round edge to the exterior). They bear on a rubble stone foundation. The sill logs on the uphill side and rear, being below grade are most likely deteriorated.

    Recommendation:

    Plan on replacing rear and one side sill logs.

Logs Columns and Uprights:
  • Large half log slabs stand vertical beneath the main ridge purlin. The inner slab bears on a stone footing while the outer slab bears on the sill and is scribed around the sill log. These slabs in turn are through bolted at the top of the vertical wall slabs.

    At the front eave, two large log columns supporting the extended wall beam have knee braces to the front purlin. The columns bear on stone footings and appear to be sound, with perhaps only minor deterioration at their base.

    Recommendation:

    The half log slabs appear in good condition with the exception of the outer uphill sidewall where the grade has grown over the sill log. This will most likely have to be replaced.

Walls:
  • The walls are composed of vertical positioned log slabs to the rear eave height. They bear directly on the sill log. Above the rear eave height, the wall is made up of 6" x 6" solid beams shaped for the roof slope. The third beam up extends to the top of the front column.

  • Recommendation:

    The wall members appear in sound condition. Some minor deterioration may be present on the uphill side, but not enough for the present to consider replacement.

Roof:
  • The roof is composed of a two primary cross purlins, one at the ridge and one at the front eave. Solid timber plates rest on the purlins and along the top of the wall beams. The plates in turn support squared shake nailers with a broad overhang at the rake and eaves. 42" shakes comprise the roof cover.

    Recommendation:

    The roof frame appears in good condition. The shakes (and perhaps the upper surface of the shake nailers) appear to be in poor condition and should be replaced.

Interior:
  • The four interior bunks appear to be in good shape.

Footnote:

During the winter of 2006 and 2007, a tree fall damaged Elk Lake Shelter. The shelter is scheduled to be rebuilt in the summer of 2009.

Period 6

Figure No. 3: Elk Lake Shelter, October 2007


V.2.27
Twelve Mile Shelter


Introduction:

Constructed in August of 1963 on the North Fork of the Quinault River, Twelve Mile Shelter incorporated both full log, log slab, and sawn timber in its construction.

Period 6

Figure No. 1: Twelve Mile Shelter, August, 2006.

Both the 1974 and 1980 shelter surveys listed Twelve Mile shelter to be in excellent condition. The last assessment was conducted in 2006.

Site:
  • (See General observations)

    The site is in an open clearing with little to no vegetation. The grade is relatively flat around the shelter. Duff and grown debris has accumulated around the base of the building to a minor extent.

  • Recommendation:

    Regrading of site for moisture management and sill log exposure required.

Sill Logs:
  • The sill logs are roughly 11" and are cut on three sides (round edge to the exterior). They bear on a rubble stone foundation. The sill logs only show signs of minor surface deterioration.

    Recommendation:

    Site grading for better drainage will aid the longevity of the sill logs. They appear to be reasonably sound for the present.

Logs Columns and Uprights:
  • Large half log slabs stand vertical beneath the main ridge purlin. The inner slab bears on a stone footing while the outer slab bears on the sill and is scribed around the sill log. These slabs in turn are through bolted at the top of the vertical wall slabs.

    At the front eave, two large log columns support the extended wall beam and have knee braces to the front purlin. The columns bear on stone footings. Both these columns are experiencing serious deterioration at their base.

    Recommendation:

    The half log slabs generally appear in good condition. The outside columns share some deterioration at their base similar to the sill logs. Site grading should extend their service.

    The front columns will both need to be replaced.

Walls:
  • The sidewalls are composed of vertical positioned log slabs to the rear eave height. The back wall is composed of vertical boards. Both wall assemblies bear directly on the sill log. Above the rear eave height, the wall is made up of 6" x 6" solid beams shaped for the roof slope. The third beam up extends to the top of the front column.

    Recommendation:

    The wall members appear in sound condition and serviceable conditon.

Period 6

Figure No. 2: Primary Purlin and roof frame.

Roof:
  • The roof is composed of a two primary cross purlins (6" x 8"), one at the ridge and one at the front eave. Solid 5" x 5" timber plates rest on the purlins and along the top of the wall beams. The plates in turn support squared shake nailers with a broad overhang at the rake and eaves. 42" shakes comprise the roof cover with a 30 exposure.

  • Recommendation:

    The roof structure is in sound condition, but the moss and debris accumulation on the shakes is deep enough to allow small sapling to grow. The shakes have reached the end of their service life and should be replaced.
Interior:
  • The four interior bunks appear to be in good shape.

Footnote:


Sometime during the winter of 2007-2008 a gravel flow swept through and buried most of Twelve Mile Shelter.

Given the measurements, description, and the photographic evidence from the 2006 assessment, the shelter could be rebuilt to meet the Secretary's Standards.

Period 6

Figure No. 3: Twelve Mile Shelter taken during the summer of 2008.


V.2.28
Trapper Shelter


Introduction:

Trapper Shelter was constructed in August of 1963 on the North Fork of the Quinault River. It incorporates both full log, log slab, and sawn timber common to the last NPS shelter design. Some park records refer to this shelter as "Eight Mile Shelter".

Period 6

Figure No. 1: Trapper Shelter, August, 2006.

Both the 1974 and 1980 shelter surveys listed Trapper shelter to be in excellent condition. The last assessment was conducted in 2006. A design change did occur with this shelter. Unlike Elk Lake and Twelve Mile shelters, the side walls are constructed of 6" thick timber planks as opposed to log slabs.

Site:
  • (See General observations)

    There has been a great deal of vegetation and debris build-up around this shelter. It even extends around the front entry. This build-up has completely covered the foundation and is upward on the sill log. The vegetation is thick around the shelter, hindering drying and promoting a continual environment for deterioration.

Period 6

Figure No. 2: Trapper Shelter, August, 2006; note debris build-up around base of sill log.

  • Recommendation:

    Regrading of site for moisture management and sill log exposure and foundation required. Site vegetation should be cleared to improve airflow around the structure.

Sill Logs:
  • Due to the high grade, the sill logs have upward of 2" of deterioration in the exposed areas above grade. Below grade complete deterioration is anticipated. Recommendation:

    Complete replacement of the sill logs will be required.

Log Columns and Uprights
  • Large half log slabs stand vertical beneath the main ridge purlin. While duff has built-up around the base of these members, it is assumed they are similar to the other shelters of this type and the inner slab is bearing on a stone footing while the outer slab bears on the sill and is scribed around the sill log. These slabs in turn are through bolted at the top of the vertical wall slabs.

    Being below grade, these upright slabs must be experiencing deterioration at their base. In addition, deterioration has developed around the through bolts.

    At the front eave, two log columns support the extended wall beam and have knee braces to the front purlin. The columns bear on stone footings. Both these columns are experiencing serious deterioration at their base.

    Recommendation:

    Both the log slabs and front columns will need to be replaced.

Walls:
  • The sidewalls are composed of vertical positioned milled timber planks to the rear eave height. These stockade walls bear directly on the sill log. Above the rear eave height, the wall is made up of 6" x 6" solid beams shaped for the roof slope. The third beam up extends to the top of the front column.

    The deterioration of the sill log has extended into the wall planks as high as 1 1/2". Given the planks measure 6" in depth, there still may be serviceable stock in the planks and if the sill grading and sill log replacement is done soon, retention of the wall planks may be possible. Unattended for several more years and it will be necessary to either cut the planks and insert a secondary sill plate or replace the planks entirely.

Period 6

Figure No. 3: Trapper Shelter, August, 2006; note broken top plate and roof purlin.

  • Within the gable end walls, damage has occurred. This apparently is from a fallen tree. One 4" x 4" sidewall top plate is cracked and has the end missing. The damage also includes several broken roof purlins. Due to the damage, four (4) non-original log posts have been inserted within the shelter to support the roof.

    Recommendation:

    The shake roof will need to be replaced and during this work, at least two new roof purlins and one roof plate will also need to be replaced.

Roof:
  • The shake roof is composed of 44" shakes with a 9" to 10" lap. Many of the shakes were damaged in the tree fall, are heavily laden with moss, and in very poor condition. Unlike other shelters, the front roof overhang has a wooden gutter, albeit in poor condition.

Period 6

Figure No. 4: Trapper Shelter, August, 2006; note wood gutter at front eave.

  • Recommendation:

  • A complete new shake roof is needed for this shelter. The gutter appears serviceable and should be reused.

Period 6

Figure No. 5: Trapper Shelter, August, 2006; note Duct Tape over hole in the roof.

Interior:
  • There are four bunks in the shelter. The actual bunks appear in fair condition. Damage from the tree fall occurred though to several of the bunk supports on the sidewalls and at the interior bunk columns.

    Recommendation:

    The bunk supports will require repair as part of the overall project for this shelter.


V.2.29
Mink Lake Shelter


Introduction:

Mink Lake Shelter was constructed in September of 1963. It incorporates both full log, log slab, and sawn timber common to the last NPS shelter design.

Period 6

Figure No. 1: : Mink Lake Shelter, October 2007
The 1974 shelter survey listed Mink Lake as being in poor condition. The 1980 survey though assessed the shelter as being in good condition. The last assessment was conducted in October of 2007, finding the shelter in good condition though lacking roof shakes.

Period 6

Figure No. 2: This field sketch was drawn by Don (Duck) Houk during a site visit to the shelter in September 2007.
Site:
  • (See General observations)

    There is a great deal of duff build-up along the back wall and along some of the sidewalls. This is just natural accretion of forest debris. The shelter rests on a rubble stone foundation.

  • Recommendation:

    Regrading of site for moisture management and sill log exposure required. The duff and grade around the shelter should be lowered to a point where a minimum of 3" of stone is exposed.

Sill Logs:
  • The sill logs are 8" x 10" set on edge and half lapped at the corners. They are in good condition.

    Recommendation:

    The site work will keep these logs above grade with air movement around them, plus allow drainage away from the logs, so they should stay in good condition for some time.

Log Columns and Uprights
  • Large half log slabs stand vertical beneath the main ridge purlin on both sides of the sidewalls. The inner slab is flush with the sill and the outer slab is scribed around the sill. It appears that both slabs bear on a stone footing. These slabs in turn are through bolted at two locations, one just above the sill and one through the gable wall member that extends outward over the front columns. All the slabs appear in good condition.

    At the front eave, two log columns support the extended wall beam and have knee braces to the front purlin. One column has deteriorated at the base. Normally these columns rest on stone piers, and either the stone is missing or is covered with duff.

    Recommendation:

    The deteriorated columns should be replaced with a complete new log.

Walls:
  • The walls are composed of 4" x 12" vertical planks to the height of the rear eave plate, roughly 46". In turn, these planks support an 8" plate. Stacked on top of the plate are random size dimensioned beams, with the 2nd course beam cantilevering to the front to carry the front roof plate. The front log columns support the cantilevered beams.

    Recommendation:

    These walls appear to be in good condition and do not require any work at this point in time.

Roof:
  • Wood rafters, roughly 4" x 4" in size, span between the front and rear plates to the center ridge beam. The only exception is the central rear roof rafter which measures 5" x 5". The rafters are offset on each slope in order to form the extension of the front roof over the back. Spaced at 40" o. c., these rafters in turn support shake nailers varying from 3 1/2" x 4 to 4" x 4". The shake nailers are laid at 26" o.c., allowing for 36" shakes with 26" exposure.

    With the exception of three missing shake nailers on the rear slope, the actual roof framing appears in good condition.

    The complete shake roof is missing. Apparently a temporary tarp has been used for the roof covering.

    Recommendation:

    Following the replacement of the missing shake nailers, a complete new shake roof is required for the shelter.

Interior:
  • On these later shelters, there is little in the record about interior bunks, but most seems to have been equipped with four bunks along the back of the sidewalls. At the Mink Lake Shelter, only three bunks remain, the fourth presumably succumbing to a campfire. The bunks are supported at the back by a ledger members attached to the rear wall. At the front of the bunk a pair of cross supports were notched into the sidewalls and then bolted to an upright column. The column in turn was nailed to a spacer, the spaced nailed to the side of a rafters. This offset location for the column (instead of being directly under the rafter) was presumably due to a standard of 32" wide.

    Recommendation:

    The boards that form the bunk on the upper right facing the shelter are missing, along with the two cross members. Bunk boards and support members should be restored. The rear ledge support is present but will need to be re-anchored.

    Note:

    The Mink Lake Shelter was re-roofed and one front column/stone pier replaced in the fall of 2008.


V.2.30
Happy Hollow Shelter


Introduction:

Happy Hollow Shelter was constructed in September of 1963. It incorporates both full log, log slab, and sawn timber common to the last NPS shelter design.

Period 6

Figure No. 1: Happy Hollow Shelter, built 1963.

Both the 1974 and 1980 shelter surveys list Happy Hollow Shelter as being in excellent condition. The assessment of October 2007 found the shelter in good condition with the exception of modest deterioration at the base of the main columns and sill log.

Site:
  • (See General observations)

  • The site is heavily overgrown with vegetation with a substantial build-up of forest duff around the foundation stones.

    Recommendation:

    All the site vegetation should be cleared from the base of the building and back at least four to five feet around the shelter. This will increase drying and air movement. The duff should be removed to a level that exposes a minimum of 3" of the foundation stones.

Sill Logs:
  • The sill logs are 9" x 10 ", sawn on three sides and half lapped at the corners. They are in reasonably good condition, though there is some minor deterioration on their underside being close to the ground. Site work and vegetation reduction should reduce the rate of decay

Log Columns and Uprights
  • Large half log slabs stand vertical beneath the main ridge purlin on both sides of the sidewalls. The inner slab is flush with the sill and the outer slab is scribed around the sill. It is assumed that both slabs bear on a stone footing. These slabs in turn are through bolted at two locations, one just above the sill and one through the gable wall member that extends outward over the front columns. All the slabs are experiencing deterioration at their base, upwards of 2". The rest of the slab is in good condition.

    At the front eave, two log columns support the extended wall beam and have knee braces to the front purlin. Both columns have deteriorated at the base. Normally these columns rest on stone piers, and either the stone is missing or is covered with duff.

    Recommendation:

  • The wall slabs are in too good a condition to immediately consider total replacement. Depending on removal of duff, it would be more reasonable to cut off the decayed base portion and reset the slab on a larger stone pier. The same could be done with the front columns. In both cases this would save considerable work and historic fabric as opposed to total replacement and is the better choice

Walls:
  • Unlike Trapper and Mink Lake Shelters, and similar to Elk Lake and Twelve Mile Shelters, the lower portion of the side wall of Happy Hollow are composed of sawn log slabs, roughly 6' thick and 14" wide. The upper portion and gable ends are sawn squared 6" timbers with the 3rd course extending out to carry the front purlin. All these members are in good condition.

Period 6

Figure No. 2: Broken front shake nailer on Happy Hollow Shelter

Roof:
  • The roof framing is composed of the three primary purlins (7" x 7") at the front eave and ridge and 5" x 5" offset rafters. The rafters carry the shake nailers, 5 on the back slope and 4 on the front slope. These shake nailers are 4" squared timbers, spaced at 30" centers. The front most nailer on the front slope is deeply cracked. The rest of the nailers are in good condition.

    The shakes are 42" in length and appear to be in good condition. There are no leaks in the shelters.

    Recommendation:

    The front shake nailer needs to be replaced, but the rest of the roof appears sound.

Interior:
  • There are five bunks in the shelter, double bunks on each back sidewall and a single bunk across the back. They are assembled in the same manner as Mink Lake shelter with ledger supports on the walls and front cross members bolted to a square column. Unlike Mink Lake, these columns bear under a rafter, adding support to the roof. The bunks are in good condition.




1   Mission 66 Master Plan, Volume 1, Chapter 2, "Visitor Use Brief", page 39, January, 1962; on file at ONP archives.
2   Personal correspondence from Russ Dalton, retired NPS staff, and Paul Gleeson, February 8, 2008, on file at ONP archives.


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