V.2.13
Period II: Individual Shelters - 1934 to 1938
National Park Service and the National Monument


General Description:

Only one of the original four historic shelters constructed by the National Park Service remain from this period: Anderson Pass (1934). Home Sweet Home (1935), and Low Divide [Renegade] (1935) have been lost to weather and are not scheduled to be replaced. These shelters had similarities in style with the Forest Service Standard Plan L-4, but were larger, and had some rustic details more associated with National Park Service design standards. The shelters were nearly 19 feet wide, and varied from 14 to 20 feet deep. They were framed of peeled logs and retained the offset roof slopes. The largest, Anderson Pass Shelter was twice the size of the early Forest Service shelters. Two of the shelters have curved logs for knee braces, while one even has exposed beam tails. While both of these could be interpreted as design details characteristic of the early National Park Service rustic style, the curved knee braces were actually installed by Park Service maintenance personnel in 1990. Unlike the earlier Forest Service Shelters, all these shelter utilized board and batten for all or portions of the exterior siding.

V.2.14
Anderson Pass Shelter
Introduction:

Anderson Pass Shelter is located on the ridge divide between the Dosewallips and Quinault river drainages, about nine miles west of the Dosewallips Ranger Station. It was evaluated in 1998, and suffered damage later that winter, along with a number of other shelters in the Park.

Anderson Pass shelter was a large shelter, measuring nearly 20 feet deep and eighteen feet wide. The primary frame was log and generally followed the concept of the earlier Forest Service design of being three bays deep with angle bracing. The front purlin of the rear bay has two extra support columns within the shelter. There is a wood floor thoughout the shelter with the rear bay section raised above the front two bays.

Period 2

Figure No. 1: Anderson Pass Shelter. The image on the left was taken in 1998, while the image on the right was in 1999.

General Discussion:

During the winter of 1998-99, the Anderson Pass shelter suffered a partial collapse at the southeast corner. The cause appears to have been a combination of being in poor condition and heavy winter snow. The shelter had been assessed in 1998. At that time, there were some minor repairs that needed attention, one being repair of the east side rear roof sidewall overhang, which had collapse. Otherwise, the structure appeared in good condition. The earlier maintenance records to mention Anderson Pass shelter from 1956 only noted the need to replace two bunks. 1

During the 1998 assessment, basic dimensions of the structure were taken and the frame system was recorded. The sill logs were 16" diameter fir, resting on grade, but with only minor deterioration.. The primary frame members were 8' to 10" fir logs. The purlins were fir logs. The rafters were fir poles, from 5" to 8" diameter, which is much larger than earlier Forest Service shelters. The exterior consisted of 1" x 11 1/2" rough sawn boards with 1 x 2 battens. The shakes on the roof were 32" cedar. There were no individual bunks, but rather the raised floor across the rear provides the sleeping platform.
Seven years after the partial collapse in 1999, a damage assessment was conducted in 2006. This time the west side roof overhang had broken off, the sill logs had significant rot, the front corner log columns had failed, and frame was racking to the SE. Substantial repair work was recommended.

Site:
  • (See General observations)

    Recommendation:

    Continued management of site grading for moisture management and sill log exposure required, as well as keeping site vegetation cleared; this was noted in both the 1998 and 2006 assessments.

Frame:
  • Based on the 2006 assessment, both the east and west side sill logs were substantially deteriorated. The front corner columns and braces were damaged beyond repair. It appeared the front purlin could be salvaged but the knee braces of the front columns required replacement, as did the first bay primary diagonal braces.

    Due to a heavy snow location, consideration should be given to include an intermediate log column under the front purlin. A record photograph from 1984 (See Figure No. x-17) appears to show such an intermediate column.

    Recommendation:

    Replace east and west side 16" diameter fir sill logs.
    Replace both front 10" fir corner column logs
    Salvage front purlin log and reuse
    Replace front bay 6" knee braces
    Replace sidewall 6" diagonal frame brace
    Provide an intermediate 10" log column under front purlin.

Sidewalls:

  • A portion of the east sidewall board and batten, and the associated intermediate nailers, had received significant damage that caused for their replacement. The rest of the exterior sheathing was felt to be in usable condition.

    Recommendation:

    Replace two 2 x 4 sidewall nailers, 18 feet long.
    Replace eight 1" x 11 1/2" rough cut boards, minimum of 12 feet long
    Replace eight 1 x 2 battens, 12 feet long.

Roof:
  • While rafters were thought to be reusable, all the shake nailer boards on the front roof slope required complete replacement due to the ends breaking off under snow load.

Period 2

  • Figure No. 2: File photo of Anderson Pass Shelter taken for 1984 Cultural Resource Inventory; note the broken shake nailers at the sidewall.

  • In 1984, a cultural resource inventory was made of many of the historic building in Olympic National Park, including Anderson Pass Shelter. In the inventory photograph of Anderson Pass shelter, it clearly shows the shaker nailer boards broken off. They must have been repaired following this period as the 1998 photograph (Figure No. x-16) shows them broken off in a different configuration. Such repetitious damage leads to the questions as to whether the detail of the roof overhang should be altered. From the notes of the 1998 assessment, the overhang is 16" at 28" on center. That translates to a little over 3 square feet of cantilever load for each 2 x 5 nailer, laid flat. Assuming heavy snow is 30# to 40# per cubic foot, and a good winter has four feet of snow, this means each nailer has to carry 360 to 480 lbs of snow load. This exceeds the capacity of the 2 x 5 shake nailers. If the nailers are replaced "in-kind", the historical evidence indicates they will break again. To prevent this occurrence, the shake nailers could have their depth increased, their spacing shortened, the size of the overhang could be reduced, or the original size and spacing reinforced. All these options introduce a change in the original design or appearance of the shelter. The park architect should review this issue prior to work being undertaken. While not perfectly accurate from an historic perspective, the shortening of the spacing between the nailers, say by adding on an intermediate nailer (14" oc instead of 28" oc), would be the closest expression of the original design and allow the general appearance to be retained.

    Some shakes could be reused, but additional shakes will be needed for repair of both gable end rakes.

    Recommendation:

    Park Architect needs to review alteration of original design of shake nailer boards; recommendation is to add intermediate nailers for snow load.
    Provide additional shakes for rake repair

Interior:

  • In neither the 1998 or 2006 assessment, nothing was noted as needed for the large raised rear bunk platform at the rear of the shelter.

Shelter Conservation:
  • During the summer of 2008 extensive repairs were undertaken to address the issues noted in this condition assessment. The shelter is now in very good condition.

Period 2

Figure No. 3: Repair work underway during 2006


V.2.15
Home Sweet Home Shelter

Introduction:

The National Park Service constructed Home Sweet Home Shelter in 1935. It is located roughly 13 miles above the Staircase Ranger Station on the north fork of the Skomomish river. It was reconstructed in 2000.

Like Low Divide, this first generation of trail shelter by the National Park Service was similar to the Forest Service L-4 plan of 1934, but increased in width to 18 feet. Unlike Anderson Pass, which is nearly 20 feet deep, this shelter was kept at 14 feet.

Period 2

Figure No. 1: Home Sweet Home Shelter in 1998.

General Discussion:

In 1956, maintenance records noted that it needed "more shakes". . 2   An undated listing of shelters, but with references through the early 1970's, notes Home Sweet Home shelter was rebuilt in 1971 by the SCA. 3     In 1980, an assessment condition was considered "excellent". 4     An undated shelter condition report, with discussion references after 1991, states that Home Sweet Home was again "rebuilt" in 1991.

The shelter was assessment in 1998 assessment, with basic dimensions of the structure taken and the present condition recorded. The sill logs were 12" diameter, with only slight deterioration. The primary frame members and purlins were 12" logs. The rafters were 5" poles and the shake nailers 3 x 5 rough cut boards on the front roof slope, but 3 x 6 split cedar on the back roof. The walls were a combination of board and batten, and shakes.

During the 1998 assessment, it was noted that seven rafters had broken under snow load on the front roof. Similar to Anderson Pass, the shake nailer board eave extensions had also broken on the east side of the rear roof section.

During the winter of 1998-99, a tree fell on the shelter resulting in major damage.

Period 2

Figure No. 2: Home Sweet Home Shelter in 1999.

Commentary:

Park records indicate the shelter has been "rebuilt" two times in the past thirty-seven (37) years. There is no record of what precisely was repaired, or whether there were any deviations from the original design. Given the shelter has a remarkable similarity to other historic shelter attests to a long park service tradition of "replacement-in-kind" policy for these backcountry structures.

There has been no recent assessment of Home Sweet Home shelter following its collapse in 1999.

Between the measurements, description, and the photographic evidence from the 1998 assessment, the shelter could be rebuilt to meet the Secretary's Standards. It is recommended consideration be given to adding additional interior support either through bunk frames and/or additional columns.

The present policy is not to rebuild the shelter at this time.


V.2.16
Low Divide (Renegade) Shelter

Introduction:

In the fall of 1935, the National Park Service built a trail shelter at Low Divide. Eighteen years later, in a completion report on shelter work for the summer of 1953, two structures (Bldg #275 and Bldg #209) were both noted as Low Divide Shelters. In records from the 1970's, the shelters were noted at "Low Divide #1 (Bldg #275 and "Low Divide #2" (No bldg # noted). Low Divide #1 was rebuild by the SCA in 1971. Low Divide #2 was listed as built in the 1960's. A shelter report in 1974 uses the terms "Upper Low Divide", calling it the older style of shelter, and "Lower Low Divide", referring to it as the newer style of shelter. This 1974 report states the Lower shelter was in excellent condition and the Upper shelter in poor condition. By 1980, there was only one Low Divide Shelter, called "Low Divide Shelter, Lower", and listed in excellent condition. It received some minor repair in 1989. It was last assessed in 1998.

Period 2

Figure No. 1: Low Divide Shelter in the summer of 1998.

General Discussion:

Like Home Sweet Home, this first generation of trail shelters by the National Park Service was similar to the Forest Service L-4 plan of 1934, but increased in width to 18 feet. Unlike Anderson Pass, which is nearly 20 feet deep, this shelter was kept at 14 feet.

The earliest NPS records of shelter maintenance show the shelter was reshaked in 1953, eighteen years following construction. By 1956, it was listed as needing four new bunks repaired. In 1971 it was "rebuilt" by the Student Conservation Program (SCP), and was listed in 1974 and 1980 surveys as being the "excellent" condition. In the 1998 assessment, the shelter was noted as being in good condition, the only deficiencies being some minor rot on the sill logs and serious dry rot in the base of the front column of the southeast corner.

Over the winter of 1999, Low Divide Shelter collapsed from heavy snow.

During the 1998 assessment, basic dimensions of the structure were taken and the frame system well recorded. The sill logs were 15" diameter fir, resting on stone piers. The primary frame members and purlins were 12" fir logs. The rafters were much larger than lower elevation shelters, being 6" to 8" in diameter. The roof shakes were 32" cedar.

Commentary:

In the case of Low Divide Shelter, between the measurements, description, and the photographic evidence from the 1998 assessment, the shelter could be rebuilt to meet the Secretary's Standards. It is recommended consideration be given to adding additional interior support either through bunk frames and/or additional columns.

The present policy is not to repair the shelter at this time.




1   Memo to Chief Engineer, Trail Shelter - Needed Repair, October 1956, Paul Gleeson Shelter files, OLYA.
2   Memo to Chief Engineer, Trail Shelter - Needed Repair, October 1956; Paul Gleeson Shelter files, OLYA
3   Trail and Shelter summary list, n.d.; Paul Gleeson Shelter files, OLYA.
4   Condition Record, November 1980; Paul Gleeson Shelter files, OLYA


Period 1 spacer Table of Contents spacer Period 3