V.2.2
Period I: Individual Shelters - 1905 to 1934


General Description:

The shelters of this period are timber framed, as opposed to solid log. They measure roughly 14 feet square. Round or squared sill beams, usually of cedar and roughly 12 inches in diameter, rest on stone piers to form the base of the structure. Ten peeled posts, or columns, 10 inches in diameter, (or sometimes square sawn or hewn timbers) rest on the sill, four on each sidewall and two at the back wall, with an open front. The front three posts are of equal height, and carry a cross member referred to in the drawing as a "rafter plate support." The back wall posts are shorter in height, creating an offset gable roof. Spanning across the structure are three beams and a center mid-span truss. These beams are rafter plates, or also often referred to as "purlins". A purlin is a wood member laid horizontal over principal rafters to carry common rafters, but in this context is an acceptable term for these plates. The purlin over the open entry side has pole knee braces. Over these purlins, 5" to 6" pole rafters are laid. Over the rafters are either split or solid shake ties, or shake nailers, laid at a spacing to match shakes courses. Similar nailers are placed along the sidewalls. Barn shakes from 32" tp 40" are used for the roofing and sheathing of the sidewalls. The rear roof slope of the offset gable extends, or is combed, over the shorter front roof, allowing for a full-length open smoke vent.

The L-4 plan does not reference any flooring or bunk frames.


Period 1

Figure No. 1: Forest Service Standard Plan L-4


V.2.3
Happy Four Shelter

Introduction:

Constructed in 1928, Happy Four Shelter is located on the Hoh River above Olympic Guard Station. Based on an evaluation in April 1998, substantial work has been completed on this shelter in the last few years.

Happy Four Shelter is an early variation of the Forest Service L-4 plan of 1934. The primary variation consists in the configuration of the diagonal bracing system of the main frame.

Period 1

Figure No. 1: Happy Four Shelter; left, April 1998, right, Summer 2006.

Site:
  • (See General observations)

    Recommendation:

    Continued management of site grading for moisture management and sill log exposure required, as well as keeping site vegetation cleared.


Frame:
  • Frame consists of split cedar. In 1998, at least one rear diagonal brace was missing and sill logs showed signs of deterioration. Missing diagonal has been replaced. All sill logs were replaced. Logs are now above grade and should have low rate of deterioration.

    Recommendation:

    Periodic maintenance reviews should verify if the sill logs are above grade and free of any duff build up and vegetation.

Sidewalls:
  • Sidewalls are cedar shake. Sidewall shakes were replaced during recent work.

    Recommendation:

    Continue to maintain positive site drainage for shake conservation.

Roof:
  • In 1998, the roof was covered with moss and duff. It appeared dry on the interior, but exterior surface was not exposed for evaluation. Roof was replaced in recent work.

    Recommendation:

    Maintain roof cleaning on a periodic basis for long -term durability of roof shakes.

Interior:
  • This shelter originally had bunk frames on the interior that were removed in 1978/1979.

    Recommendation: Verify if the shelter is located in a high snow area, and if so, the frames and bunks should be restored to provide addition structural support.

Period 1

Figure No. 2: Happy Four Shelter 2008.

  • Note: Happy Four shelter received sill, structural work, and new sidewall and roof shakes in 2006 by a group called "The Friends of the Olympic Shelters."
V.2.4

Hyak Shelter

Introduction:

Constructed in 1928, Hyak Shelter is located on the north fork of the Bogachiel River about 17 miles from the lower river trailhead . It was last evaluated in September 2002.

Hyak Shelter is an early variation of the Forest Service L-4 plan of 1934. The primary variation consists in the configuration of the diagonal bracing system of the main frame.

Period 1

Figure No. 1: Hyak Shelter, September 2002.

Site:
  • (See General observations)

    Recommendation:

    Regrading of site for moisture management and sill log exposure required. Site vegetation should be cleared.

Frame:
  • Primary frame members are round cedar log, with split cedar used for diagonal bracing. In 2002, portions of the sill logs were in below grade and showing signs of deterioration. It is expected that in regrading the site and exposing the sill logs additional deterioration will be encountered. The frame members above the sill logs appear in good condition.

    Recommendation:

    Prepare to replace sill logs.
Sidewalls:
  • Sidewalls are cedar shake. A few missing shakes are scattered along the walls, with most shakes at the base of all walls are deteriorating from ground contact.

    Recommendation:

    Replace all missing wall shakes and complete course of shakes at base of shelter.

Roof:
  • The roof is typical double coursing of cedar shakes, shake length 32" to 36", with 24" exposure. The front slope is split shakes, while the back slope is of tapered shakes. In 2002, the tapered edges of the shakes on the rear slope were wearing very thin. The cedar shake nailers (often referred to as purlins) were in good condition except for one broken tail end. The split cedar rafters were in good condition.

  • Recommendation:

    In 2002, the cedar shake roof was considered to be in fair condition, with replacement most likely needed in five years (2007). In replacing the shake roof, true split shakes should be used. The one nailer should be replaced, and at the ridge a double course of 40" shakes should be used for the comb at the ridge.

    Provide new hand-split cedar shakes and nailers for roof replacement.

Interior:
  • This shelter has split bunk frames on the interior across the back wall. These frames provide good lateral bracing, but the center upright does not extent to the beam overhead. There are no sidewall bunk frames. Verify if the shelter is in a heavy snow location. If so, adding some additional beam support is recommended.

V.2.5

Fifteen Mile Shelter

Introduction:

Constructed in 1928, Fifteen Mile Shelter is located on the north fork of the Bogachiel River just east of the confluence with the main Bogachiel River. It was last evaluated in September 2002.

Fifteen Mile Shelter is an early variation of the Forest Service L-4 plan of 1934. The primary variation consists in the configuration of the diagonal bracing system of the main frame and the open sidewalls of the first front bay.

Period 1

Figure No. 1: Fifteen Mile Shelter, September 2002.

Site:
  • (see general observations)

  • The shelter site is terraced into the hillside on a south-facing slope. This configuration means water management from the back hillside down around the structure is critical. In addition, the build-up of needles, tree limbs and duff around the building needs to be cleaned almost on an annual basis. The current condition has serious deterioration of the sill logs and the lower course of wall shingles.

    Recommendation:

    Regrading of site for moisture management and sill log exposure required. Site vegetation should be cleared.

Frame:
  • The frame members of Fifteen Mile Shelter are all of split cedar. The sill logs have completely deteriorated. Chain sawed log slabs have been inserted at the sill level as an interim measure. The lower ends of some of the vertical posts also are deteriorated. Mold and mildew are present on most frame members. These conditions will require an extensive rebuilding effort, virtually requiring a near complete disassembly of the structure.

    Recommendation:

    Replace all sill logs, most of the major vertical posts, and most likely a number of the diagonals.

Sidewalls:
  • Sidewalls are cedar shake. The gable end wall shakes are deteriorating at the base course. Along the rear wall, original shakes have been replaced with thick, fairly narrow, split cedar slabs, not really a true shake. These are not in keeping with the original coursing or design of the structure.

  • Recommendation:

    Replace complete course of shakes at base of shelter, at gable ends and complete two courses of the back wall shakes.

Roof:
  • The roof is atypical of the standard shake roof found on most shelters. The original roof has been replaced using the same thick, fairly narrow split cedar slabs found on the back wall. The courses are very irregular and poorly laid, resulting in a leaky roof.

    The split cedar rafters have tail decay on the backside and at least two have been replaced on the front slope. Given the poor nature of the roof, replacement of rafters should be anticipated, along with the shake nailers (purlins). At least portions of some of the shake nailer have been replaced with chain sawn slabs.

    Recommendation:

    Provide complete new hand-split true cedar shake roof, along with split nailers and rafters.

Interior:
  • It is difficult to assess whether this shelter originally contained any split bunk frames on the interior, either across the back wall or along the sidewalls. Verify if the shelter is in a heavy snow location; if so, restoring the bunk frames would provide some additional beam support and is recommended.

V.2.6

Deer Park Shelter # 1

Introduction:

Two shelters were constructed at Deer Park in 1930. Initially accessed by trail, in 1936 the Civil Conservation Corps constructed a road to the site for vehicle access during the summer months. Located on a ridge, the site is subject to winter snows.

Both Deer Park Shelter #1 and #2 are an early variation of the Forest Service L-4 plan of 1934. The primary variation consists in the configuration of the diagonal bracing system of the main frame. In the 1950's, the original shelter exterior of cedar shakes was replaced with board and batten siding. During the winter of 1998-1999, heavy snow accumulations resulted in structural damage to both shelters that required substantial repair.

Period 1

Figure No. 1: Deer Park Shelter #1, Spring 1999; note front roof failure from broken front beam and rafters .

In the fall of 1999, NPS contractor Mr. Wayne Gormley rebuilt the broken sections of the frame and replaced the rafters and shakes. Mr. Gormley also installed mid-span columns for the interior cross beams.

Period 1

Figure No. 2: Deer Park Shelter # 1 in the Spring of 2000.

Site:
  • (See General observations)

    The shelter site is just slightly to the south of the ridge crest. The slope of the ground and the character of vehicle driveways on the uphill side of the shelter currently channels surface moisture runoff around the back and east sides of the structure. This has resulted in grade buildup on these sides and abundant moisture at the base of the shelter. These conditions are leading to deterioration in the sill logs and lower portions of the frame.

    Recommendation:

  • Regrading of site for moisture management and sill log exposure required. Site swales should be provided to channel surface moisture around and away from the building site. It should be noted that as part of the 2000 rehabilitation work, the site was graded. This means that the current grade has accumulated from surface moisture erosion in just six years, strongly supporting periodic maintenance on at least a biannual basis.

Frame:
  • The frame members of Deer Park Shelter #1 are fir. The sill logs have some surface deterioration, but were not replaced in 2000. They are though fairly buried in the dirt buildup around the shelter. In several places, the bases of the support columns and ends of diagonal braces have significant deterioration. The rest of the frame appears in good condition based on the 2000 work.

    Recommendation:

    As part of the regarding around the shelter, the sill logs should be exposed, dirt and debris cleared from around them, and a minimum clearance of 3" provided beneath the logs for air circulation and drying. The base of the columns and diagonals should be inspected after the grade is lowered and replaced where deterioration has reached over 30% of the member.

Sidewalls:
  • Sidewalls are board and batten, board 3/4" thick and battens 1" to 1 1/4" thick. There are slight traces of red coating on the east elevation boards, suggesting they were either reused or the shelter was painted red at one period.

  • Recommendation:

    Check all connections for battens and boards. Site work should remove any grade deterioration conditions at the base of the shelter.

Roof:
  • The roof is split cedar shakes, laid double course. The front roof section was replaced completely in 2000. New shakes were installed on the back roof to cover holes. Some end deterioration is occurring along the back roof comb at the ridge. There are missing shakes along both rakes of the back roof. The back roof appears to be minimally serviceable.

    Recommendation:

    Provide complete new hand-split true cedar shake roof on the rear roof section; replace all shake nailers and pole rafters with end deterioration.

Interior:
  • Bunk frames are present across the back and west sides of the shelter. The bunk frames do not support the cross beams. The shelter is in a heavy snow location, and individual supports have been placed under the cross beams at the mid-point of the spans. Replacing bunk supports with full height log columns beneath the beams would open up the center and two beam supports.

    Recommendation:

    Provide and install new log bunk supports that also support the cross beams.

V.2.7
Deer Park Shelter #2


Introduction:

Two shelters were constructed at Deer Park in 1930. Initially accessed by trail, in 1936 the Civil Conservation Corps constructed a road to the site for vehicle access during the summer months. Located on a ridge, the site is subject to winter snows.

Both Deer Park Shelter #1 and #2 are an early variation of the Forest Service L-4 plan of 1934. The primary variation consists in the configuration of the diagonal bracing system of the main frame. In the 1950's, the original shelter exterior of cedar shakes was replaced with board and batten siding. During the winter of 1998-1999, heavy snow accumulations resulted in structural damage to both shelters that required substantial reconstruction.

Period 1

Figure No. 1: Deer Park Shelter #2, right: Spring 1999, left Winter 2000; note front roof failure from broken front beam and rafters .

In the summer of 2000, NPS contractor Mr. Wayne Gormley rebuilt the broken sections of the frame and replaced the rafters and shakes. Mr. Gormley also installed a mid-span column for the interior cross beam.

Period 1

Figure No. 2: Deer Park Shelter # 2 in the summer of 2000.

Site:
  • (See General observations)

    The slope of the ground and the character of vehicle driveways in the campground tend to funnel surface moisture around the northeast corner of the shelters. Small fir trees and other plant growth is beginning to appear around the base of the structure.

    Recommendation:

    Regrading of site for moisture management and sill log exposure required. Site swales should be provided to channel surface moisture around and away from the building site. It should be noted that as part of the 2000 rehabilitation work, the site was graded and all vegetation removed from the base of the shelter. This means that the current grade and vegetation has accumulated from surface moisture erosion in just six years, strongly supporting periodic maintenance on at least a biannual basis.

Frame:
  • The frame members of Deer Park Shelter #1 are fir. The sill logs have some surface deterioration, but were not replaced in 2000. They are though fairly buried in the dirt buildup around the shelter. In several places, the bases of the support columns and ends of diagonal braces have significant deterioration. The rest of the frame appears in good condition based on the 2000 work.

    Recommendation:

    As part of the regarding around the shelter, the sill logs should be exposed, dirt and debris cleared from around them, and a minimum clearance of 3" provided beneath the logs for air circulation and drying. The bases of the columns and diagonals should be inspected after the graded is lowered and replaced where deterioration has reached over 30% of the member.

Sidewalls:
  • Sidewalls are board and batten, board 3/4" thick and battens 1" to 1 1/4" thick. Most of the boards on the east and north side have their lower ends buried in debris and duff. Site grading should expose these ends and "lift" the ends above the grade level.

    Recommendation:

    Check all connections for battens and boards. Site work should remove any grade deterioration conditions at the base of the shelter.

Roof:
  • The roof is split cedar shakes, laid double course. The front roof section was replaced completely in 2000. New shakes were installed on the back roof to cover holes. On the back roof, there is at least one rafter and one shake nailer at the northeast corner with severe end deterioration. There are missing shakes at this corner. The back roof appears to be minimally serviceable.

    Recommendation:

    Provide complete new hand-split true cedar shake roof on the rear roof section; replace all shake nailers and pole rafters with end deterioration.

Interior:
  • Bunk frames are present across the back, east and west sides of the shelter. The bunk frames do not support the cross beams. The shelter is in a heavy snow location, and one individual support has been placed under the cross beam at the mid-point. Replacing bunk supports with full height log columns beneath the beams would open up the center and provide two beam supports.

    Recommendation:

    Provide and install new log bunk supports that also support the cross beams.

V.2.8
Graywolf Falls Shelter

Introduction:

Graywolf Falls Shelter, built in 1930, is located on the Graywolf River approximately 10 miles south of Deer Park in the northeast section of the Park. It was last evaluated in August 2006.

As with all the early Period I shelters, Graywolf Falls is an early variation of the Forest Service L-4 plan of 1934. The primary variation consists in the configuration of the diagonal bracing system of the main frame and the non-continuous horizontal sidewall beams.

Period 1

Figure No. 1: Sketch of Graywolf Falls Shelter illustrating framing variation, and a view of the shelter from August 2006

Site:
  • (See General observations)

    The shelter sits on a slight slope to the south. This configuration means water management from the back hillside down around the structure is critical. In addition, the build-up of needles, tree limbs and duff around the building needs to be cleaned almost on an annual basis. The current condition has caused serious deterioration of the back sill logs. The lower course of wallboards is expected to show severe deterioration at their base.

    Recommendation:

    Regrading of site for moisture management and sill log exposure required. Site vegetation should be cleared.

Frame:
  • The frame members of Graywolf Falls Shelter appear to be fir. The sill log at the southwest corner is seriously deteriorated. Mould and mildew are present on some frame members from the poor condition of the roof.

    Recommendation:

    Replace the rear sill log and inspect the upper beams and cross members for deterioration. Replace where ends are deteriorated.

Sidewalls:
  • Sidewalls are vertical board and batten. The walls appear in reasonable condition with the exception of the lower ends buried in duff and dirt around the backside of the shelter. Once exposed some replacement is anticipated.

    Recommendation:

    Replace rear wall boards and batten if deteriorated past connection to sill log.

Roof:
  • The roof is in poor condition. The shake nailer boards are split cedar. There are at least three locations where the nailer boards are broke off and shakes missing along the rake of the both the front and rear roofs. It is suspected that some deterioration has also occurred in the rafters. The shakes themselves are in poor condition on the front roof, and only fair/poor on the back roof.

    Recommendation:

    Provide complete new hand-split true cedar shake roof for the front roof; replace all broken and rotted split cedar nailers, and inspect all rafters, especially the tails for signs of deterioration; replace rafters where rot has penetrated the end grain for more than six inches.

Interior:
  • Bunk frames are present. If the shelter is in a heavy snow location, providing some additional beam support by replacing primary bunk uprights is recommended.

    Note:
    The Graywolf Falls Shelter was destroyed by arson during the winter of 2006-2007. Given the measurements, description, and the photographic evidence from the 2006 assessment, the shelter could be rebuilt to meet the Secretary's Standards.

V.2.9
Three Forks Shelter

Introduction:

Built in 1930, Three Forks Shelter is located on the Graywolf River approximately 4 miles south of Deer Park in the northeast section of the Park. It was last evaluated in August, 2006.

Three Forks Shelter continues the pattern of being an early variation of the Forest Service L-4 plan of 1934. As with all the others of this period, the primary variation consists in the configuration of the diagonal bracing system of the main frame and the non-continuous horizontal sidewall beams.

Period 1

Figure No. 1: Sketch of Three Forks Shelter illustrating framing variation, and a view of the shelter from August 2006

Site:
  • (See General observations)

    This shelter is one of the few where grade has been kept low, with most of the stones under the sill logs exposed.

  • Recommendation:

    Conduct periodic maintenance to keep dirt and duff from accumulating around the structure.

Frame:
  • The frame members of the Three Forks Shelter appear to be fir. The sill log at the northwest corner has some slight surface deterioration.

    Recommendation:

    Excavate around the sill log, remove surface rot, and insert flat rocks for additional support.

Sidewalls:
  • The cedar shake sidewalls are in very good condition. It should be noted that Three Forks Shelter is one of the few shelters where the cedar sidewall shakes turn and cover the face of the log post on either side of the open front. This was not the case when the shelter was surveyed in 1984. Then the front logs were exposed, and there was a window in the west wall.

    Recommendation:

    No work at this time

Roof:
  • In August of 2006, the roof was in very good condition, with all shakes and shake nailers free of any sign of deterioration and no leaks observed.

  • Recommendation:

    No work at this time

Interior:
  • This shelter does not have the standard bunk frames. A 1998 assessment of this shelter indicated there were only 3" inch thick sawn fir planks are along the back and west walls, supported and braced off the sill logs. There is no mention in the 2006 assessment of these planks, and it is assumed for planning purposes they are not in the structure. The planks appear to have been more a convenience addition that original design. Verify if the shelter is in a heavy snow location; if so, providing some additional beam support by either constructing new framed bunks or columns would be preferred, though there is no indication of their original presence. If snow is not an issue, the option of providing new planking is a management decision, and has no long term effect on the overall preservation of the shelter.

V.2.10
Pelton Creek Shelter

Introduction:

Pelton Creek Shelter, constructed in 1930, is located on the Queets River River approximately 15 miles east of Queets River trailhead. It was evaluated in in August, 2006.

Similar to the other shelters of this period, Pelton Creek is an early variation of the Forest Service L-4 plan of 1934. The primary variation consists in the configuration of the diagonal bracing system of the main frame and the use of squared timbers for the sills and some frame members.

Period 1

Figure No. 1: Pelton Creek Shelter, August 2006; note the broken and deteriorated cross beams in the back rear corner.

Note: This shelter is in very serious condition and will soon, if not already, collapse. It will require an extensive rehabilitation effort. Effort should be implemented to address its condition in the very near future. Otherwise, the project will require virtual reconstruction.

Site:
  • (See General observations)

  • The shelter is sited in an area of lush undergrowth and there is significant buildup of duff and debris along the back wall. This situation was noted in assessments conducted in 1998, 2002, and 2006. In addition, under growth should be removed from all sides of the shelter back at least three feet to allow for virtually annual cleaning around the base of the structure. The current condition has caused serious deterioration of the back sill logs. The lower course of wall shakes is expected to show severe deterioration at the base.

    Recommendation:

    Regrading of site for moisture management and sill log exposure required. Site vegetation should be cleared. The grade should be to the point that the sill logs are at least three (3) inches off the ground.

Frame:
  • Many frame members have serious deterioration.

    The sill are 10" x 10", and appear to be sawn. During the 1998 assessment, they were noted to be in good condition and solid. By the 2006 assessment, only eight years later, the west side sill log is "100%" deteriorated, as is most of the rear (north) wall, and the east wall sill log is rotted nearly half way through.

    The upright column in the northwest corner, and each of the adjacent ones to the south and east, are severely deteriorated at their base. The bases of the diagonal bracing in this area are also rotted.

    The purlin support plate along the west side of the frame is nearly "100%" deteriorated along its complete length.

    The back two purlins and the lower chord member of the ridge truss are completely deteriorated at the west end.

  • The combination of the deterioration in the sills, columns, rafter plate, and purlins along the west side and northwest corner has caused the shelter to list to the west and rack the complete frame.

    Recommendation:

    All deteriorated frame members need to be replaced. To replace these members of the frame will require extensive intervention. Either the shelter will need to be completely dismantled, or temporarily braced during replacement of all deteriorated primary frame members, and then the complete frame cross-braced and lifted in order to replace all the sills. In addition to the all the sills, it will include replacement of three columns, the west side purlin support plate, two purlins and the lower chord of the ridge truss. It will require roughly forty-eight feet of 10" x 10" squared sill, twenty-four feet of 8" x 8" square sawn columns, sixteen feet of 4" x 6" split cedar for diagonal bracing, one 12" diameter purlin support plate, and three 14" diameter purlins. It is assumed the stone piers under the sill will be exposed during site work.

Sidewalls:
  • Sidewalls consist of six courses of 29" cedar shakes, base to gable peak. They generally appear in fair condition. There are missing shakes though at the west gable, and it is anticipated the complete lower course will be deteriorated from being buried in the duff. With all the rot at the northwest corner, the horizontal pole shake nailers have completely rotted back four to five feet along the back wall, and presumed to be the same along the west wall. The wall shakes in these areas are assumed to not be re-useable.

  • Recommendation:

    At least a square of 29" cedar wall shakes will be needed to replace deteriorated or missing areas of the wall and sixty feet of 3" to 4" shakes nailers required.

Roof:
  • The roof rafters are 4" x 4" split cedar. The shake nailers are 2" x 4" sawn lumber. The back slope of the roof appears to be covered with double course 24" shakes. The front slope has a single layer of 2" thick, 29" shakes with a second course of intermediate narrow shakes over breaks of the first course.

    The front slope shakes, nailers, and rafters were in good condition as of 2006. The back slope had a large areas of rotted shakes over the northwest corner. In addition, some of the shake nailers of the northwest corner appear deteriorated.

    Recommendation:

    Due to the large area of back slope deteriorated at the northwest corner, the heavy accumulation of duff, plus the extensive repair of the frame, it is recommended the back slope of the roof be completely replaced. This will entail providing three (3) square of 24" shakes, along with sixty feet of 2" x 4" (10 foot length).

Interior:
  • There are no bunks in this shelter.

    Note:
    Pelton Creek Shelter suffered a partial collapse during the winter of 2007-2008.

V.2.11
21 Mile Shelter

Introduction:

Constructed in 1931, the 21 Mile Shelter is located on the north fork of the Bogachiel River approximately 18 miles east of the Bogachiel River trailhead. It was last evaluated in August, 2006.

Similar to the other shelters of this period, 21 Mile Shelter is an early variation of the Forest Service L-4 plan of 1934. The primary variation consists in the configuration of the diagonal bracing system of the main frame and the use of squared timbers.

Period 1

Figure No. 1: 21 Mile Shelter. The image on the left was taken in 1998, while the image on the right was in 1999.

General Discussion:

Over the winter of 1999, 21 Mile Shelter collapsed. The cause appears to have been a combination of being in poor condition and heavy winter snow. The shelter had been assessed in 1998. At that time, it was noted that all the sill logs were rotted and the structure was beginning to lean and rack to the east.

During the 1998 assessment, basic dimensions of the structure were taken and the frame system well recorded. The sill logs were 16" diameter fir, hewn flat on the bottom and resting on stone piers. The primary frame members were 8' to 10" fir logs. The purlins were cedar logs, while the ridge, rafters, and shake nailer were split cedar. The shakes on the walls and roof were 36" cedar.

The design is a variation of the Forest Service L-4 plan. As seen in Figure No. 2, the principal variation is the sidewall diagonal framing and the un-walled bay on the sidewalls.

Period 1

Figure No. 2: A sketch of the 21 Mile shelter showing the diagonal sidewall framing and its relationship to the open side bay.

In October of 1956, a list for needed trail shelter repairs was made to the Chief Park Engineer. Within that list, it was noted that 21 Mile Shelter needed a new roof, 4 bunks, a garbage pit, and a toilet. 1   When the 1998 assessment was made, the shelter did not have bunks. It is unknown if bunks were ever installed in this shelter, but if it is repaired, some consideration should be given to installing bunks as a method for strengthening the roof load capacity.

Given the measurements, description, and the photographic evidence from the 1998 assessment, the shelter could be rebuilt to meet the Secretary's Standards.

V.2.12
North Fork Soleduck Shelter

Introduction:

Constructed in 1932, North Fork Soleduck Shelter is located on the north fork of the Soleduck River approximately 9.5 miles east from the end of Upper Soleduck Road. It was last evaluated in August, 2006.

Similar to the other shelters of this period, North Soleduck Shelter is an early variation of the Forest Service L-4 plan of 1934. The primary variation consists in the configuration of the diagonal bracing system of the main frame and the use of squared timbers.

Period 1

Figure No. 1: North Fork Soleduck Shelter. These images were taken in 1998, showing the poor condition of the roof and deteriorated sill logs.

General Discussion:

At time of the 1998 assessment of the shelter, it was advised that the shelter needed extensive work including a new shake roof and roof structure, regrading the site, rebuilding the back timber frame wall, and replacing the sill logs.

During the 1998 assessment, basic dimensions of the structure were taken and the frame system well recorded. The sill logs were 18" diameter, hewn flat on the bottom and top, resting on stone piers. The primary frame members were 12" logs. The rafters and purlins were fir logs, while the shake nailers were split cedar. The shakes on the roof were 40" cedar. The sidewalls were two courses of cedar puncheon.

The design is a variation of the Forest Service L-4 plan, the most notable difference being log knee braces at each cross bent, not only just at the front purlin.

In the spring of 2000, a work project was planned to make needed repairs to the structure. It was extensive in its scope:

  • Label all salvageable material
  • Dismantle the shelter
  • Excavate upslope berm to grade out 3 to 4 feet from structure for efficient drainage
  • Set new sill logs on 12" rocks beneath all uprights and corners; treat all end grain with wood preservative
  • Install new and salvaged uprights ad rafters
  • Draw knife shake nailers on 3 sides for "tooled" appearance
  • Install double layer of 48" barn shakes with 36" exposure and 6-12" ridge comb
  • Install new cedar punchion sidewall lower course and back wall
  • Rebuild cedar bunks
In the November of 2000, the above scope of work was executed. The site was highly recontoured for positive drainage, the frame repaired, a new shake roof installed, new cedar siding installed, and the bunks rebuilt. (See Figures No. 2 and 3)

Period 1

Figure No. 2: North Fork Soleduck Shelter after 2000 rehabilitation.

Period 1

Figure No. 3: Rebuilt bunks and frame.

From the record photographs, the work seems to have been well executed. The shelter was assessed in 2006 and no traces of deterioration or roof leakage were found. Vegetation was found around the base of the building and removed. The shelter was described as being in "very good condition". Applying the general recommendations of periodically maintaining the site grading, cleaning the roof of debris and checking the integrity of the frame should allow the shelter to remain in good condition for many years.



1   Memo to Chief Engineer, Trail Shelter - Needed Repair, October 1956, Paul Gleeson Shelter files, OLYA.


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