HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY
ENCHANTED VALLEY CHALET
(DRAFT #6. September 2014)
PART 2


In their early years, the Olympians and the Olympic Recreation Company were not collaborators. The Olympians were unofficially founded in 1915 and incorporated in 1925. Their founding members came from Hoquiam, south of Quinault and accessed the Olympic Mountains from the south side. The Olson brothers and early Olympians were exploring the Olympic interior around the same time. 121 By the late 1920s Ignar and Elvin Olson knew of the Olympians but were not on good terms with the two of their leaders, W.C. Mumaw and Matt Mathias. The details of this conflict are unclear, but according to John Olson, his father and uncle were wary of Mumaw, Mathias, and the Olympians by extension. 122 The club owned a single share in the Olson Brothers' rival company, the Olympic Chalet Company, which Mumaw co-directed. 123 By the 1930s Ignar Olson's opinion of the Olympians had improved and he occasionally worked for the club, helping them establish base camps in the mountains. 124 It is unclear when and how the Olympians first became attached to the Enchanted Valley Chalet, but by the 1980s connection was already there.

In May 1982 the club began fundraising and drew up plans of the Chalet by referencing photographs. They formed a Conservation Committee and a "Friends of the Enchanted Valley Chalet" group. On 28-30 May, a measuring crew visited Enchanted Valley where they assessed the building's condition and made final adjustments to the blueprints. The party members were all Olympians: Dave Butterfield (Rayonier employee), Harold Lloyd (Rayonier employee), Ron Lofgren, and Sam Conrad. 125

Through 1982-85 the Olympians held a fundraising campaign to raise money and collect materials. The club hosted a pancake feed, oyster feed, and raffle; they collected aluminum cans, sold bumper stickers, and wrote to many local businesses for donations. 126 In preparation for the first summer of restoration the Olympians raised $7000 in cash and nearly $5000 in materials, but by the project's completion in 1985 they had raised over $20,000 in cash and donations. Many area residents donated cash, tools, and labor. An original silk screen print by Elton Bennett, donated by the artist's daughter, was raffled off for $1,742.95.

Many local companies from Hoquiam, Aberdeen, and Montesano also participated, including ITT Rayonier Inc. (20 logs valued at $2,000); Mayr Bros Saw Mill (log storage, log shaping, and lumber for 20 shutters and sashes); Robert Ruiz, a mason from Montesano, WA (300 Chehalis common bricks); Pryde Bros. Inc. (stainless steel flashing); Jack Root Construction Co. (heavy hauling of materials to Bunches Meadow); Knack Manufacturing (windows, flooring, molding, stair parts); Hoquiam Plywood Co (Marine plywood for shutters); McCleary Horse Riders (packing of materials to Enchanted Valley); Day-n-Nite Propane (5 gallons of propane); Copeland Glass (frame for Elton Bennett print); and Graystone of Grays Harbor, Stouffer's Home Improvement, Bayview Building Materials (percent reduction in bills). 127

The Olympians and the National Park Service agreed to use some of the collected funds to hire an experienced project supervisor; NPS chose John Marshall, a preservationist from Idaho. He shared his enthusiasm for old buildings and craftsmanship with the volunteer crews, noting that building's relatively good condition was a sign of the original carpenters' great skill. Additionally, NPS contributed the expertise of its Cultural Resources staff, assessed the structure, determined what supplies that would be needed, coordinated helicopter flights, and provided accounting to the Olympians. The club also received critical support from NPS in specialized areas such as the project engineering, preliminary cost estimate, contracting, and liability. estimate, contracting, and liability. 128

The relationship between the two agencies is well demonstrated by a letter that Allan Comp wrote to the Olympian's Conservation Committee in 1982:

First, I want you to know that the drawings prepared by the Olympians of the Chalet were most helpful. Last week we completed an on-site survey of the logs necessary, windows condition, and other rehabilitation needs. Without these drawings our work would have taken much longer and our trip would have been much less productive. Obviously, this collaborative relationship between the Olympians and the National Park Service is already bearing good fruit. [...] I want to make it clear that we are depending on the volunteer efforts of those Olympians willing to make the trek to the Chalet. The one person we can station there (using the donated funds) cannot hope to do all the work that is needed--and besides, a little cheering up and good company is always important in a long project like this one. [...] Your efforts on behalf of this important structure and its rehabilitation are already meritous. While I am confident the club will continue to watch over the Chalet and alert the park to any area of concern in the future, it is the responsibility of the National Park Service to maintain its historic structures to the best of its ability. Your assistance in bringing the Enchanted Valley Chalet up to a state of repair that makes possible its continued maintenance and use are fully acknowledged and very much appreciated. 129

ONP Superintended Roger Cantor was more cautious in his approach to the project. He wrote: We should also make it clear that we cannot be committed to any long ranger preservation of the building. Even if it is placed on the National Register it is doubtful if federal funding for its preservation could be expected. In time the building may deteriorate beyond the point of reasonable reparability, although efforts of your group can surely prolong its life." 130

As the Olympians and NPS were focused on the Enchanted Valley Chalet, they also discussed it eligibility for the National Register of Historic Places and considered the implication that, if it were considered eligible, certain conditions and opportunities would apply. Superintendent Cantor explained to the Olympians that "the Chalet's eligibility for the National Register of Historic Places was last studied in 1978, and it was found to be ineligible at that time. The recent visits provided more information and it appears that there is a remote possibility that it could be eligible. Status on or off the register does determine the level of historic integrity required in any repair effort." 131 Once its eligibility was determined, ONP would consult a historic architect, absolve the club of liability in case of personal accidents or damage to the structure, and provide Volunteers in Parks (VIP) status to all participants so that they were be covered for injuries sustained while working on the Chalet. Park staff continued working on this research project while the Olympian's hands-on restoration work began.

In June, 1983, John Marshall and Olympians made camp in Enchanted Valley and set to work repairing the Chalet. The crews worked fourteen hour days. Marshall directed volunteers as they raked soil away from the foundation, dug out and replaced several rotted sill logs, removed the windows and doors, and jacked up and braced the building to make it level. Two volunteer masons rebuilt the chimney. The entire building exterior received a coat of wood preservative. On the interior, broken floor boards were replaced with recycled ones to match, graffiti was removed from the walls and ceilings, and missing beaded fir paneling was replaced. The windows were made by Roy Knack, of Hoquiam, who had built the originals in 1931. 132 Finally, Marshall and the volunteers identified a few additional tasks they wanted to complete the following summer. 133

The entire effort was closely reported in the Daily World newspaper, of Aberdeen. Its editor, Bryn Beorse was a member of the Olympians and wrote more than a dozen articles before, during, and after the restoration work. According to Beorse,

In the waning days of the project [...] a typical scene was Marshall hard at work in the main room late at night, gas lanterns burning, shaping shutters with hand tools so they'd fit old, warped frames. The day's work began before 7 after a night filled with the bugling of elk and the blaze of moonlit mountains. Work halted for breakfast, continued with halts for lunch and dinner and petered out at about 10 p.m. It brought forth images of a hard-pressed Depression-era shop, with the lighting, hours, hand tool use and products all offering images of the past." 134


For this renovation the crews did not gather materials on site; instead the logs, tools, doors, windows, and other supplies were lifted in by helicopter. They used a chainsaw, but no other power tools. The crews of scheduled volunteers also received spontaneous assistance from hikers who passed through the valley, in the same way that the Olympic Recreation Company did during the original construction in 1930. By the end of the summer, 41 people (Olympians, hikers, others) had donated 1,661 hours of work on site. 135

In May, 1984, park staff and the Olympians returned to Enchanted Valley for a second season to make more repairs including replacing a base log and filling in a rectangular hole in the northwest façade remaining from the unfinished fireplace. They contributed 814 hours. In July, 1985, work resumed for a third and final season. The crew spent two weeks finishing up with log inserts, a new back porch, new ranger station door, a drain field for the ranger's kitchen sink, and a railing for the second story staircase. Sam Conrad, a long-time member of the Olympians and participant in the project, died of natural causes on the hike out. 136

The Enchanted Valley Restoration project attracted a great deal of attention locally and nationally. From 1982-1985 The Daily World published regular articles about the Olympians, the Olson family, and the Chalet. In March, 1984 President Ronald Reagan sent a note to the Olympians commending the club members for demonstrating "compassion for others, creativity in meeting challenges, and determination to accomplish goals." 137 In October, 1984 The Washington Trust for Historic Preservation presented the Olympians with one of its three annual awards. 138 Years later, Anne Moisanen was named Citizen of the Year in Montesano, WA and commended for her many years of service, especially with Girl Scouts and the renovation of Enchanted Valley Chalet. Moisanen personally spent eight weeks at Enchanted Valley throughout the three-year project. 139

1983/ Historic Resource Study

NPS Historian Gail H. E. Evans wrote the first professional historic analysis of the Enchanted Valley Chalet as part of an all-encompassing Historic Resource Study for Olympic National Park in 1983. Evans was the lead historian for this project and was supervised by Alan Comp, director of Cultural Resources in the Pacific Northwest Region. At this point in time, no such inventory had been done within the park. It was necessary step for implementation of the Wilderness Act at ONP, since cultural resources and national register-eligible sites are exempt from the Act.

Evan's research determined that the Enchanted Valley Chalet was historically significant, particularly because it was--and still is--"the last extant structure in Olympic National Park representing the efforts of a commercial enterprise to develop the recreational potential of the Peninsula's interior mountain wilderness. 140 She also wrote about the Olympic Recreation Company, recreational developments plans by the US Forest Service, the Chalet's occupation by the AWS, its role in park administration, and the NPS/Olympians restoration work. The Historic Resource Study was a significant document in that it determined that the Chalet was eligible for the National Register of Historic Places.

1985/Assessment

As the restoration project came to a close, Donald Peting, a professor of Historic Preservation at the University of Oregon, conducted a condition assessment of several ONP buildings and prepared "Historic Structures Preservation Guides" for each. The Chalet was found to be in excellent condition. However, Peting advised that the park make a plan to reconfigure interior walls on the ground floor, particularly an "awkward, recently installed plywood partition" around the staircase. It had been constructed shortly before the Olympians' restoration projects. 141 He explained: "the wall was placed there to control public access to second floor sleeping rooms and attic which are now only reached through the two room ranger quarters with separate outside entry. [The] stairway is dark and stored materials (mostly firewood) nearly block access." 142 Allan Comp had similar feelings about the notorious "ugly wall" and there was some discussion about having Marshall and the Olympians remove it.

Peting suggested building a wire cage around the staircase to keep visitors out of the upper floor but leave the historic staircase visible. This and other proposals were intended to make the ranger station more functional and restore "the original intentions of the designer." Furthermore, he suggested that the upper rooms "be made accessible for viewing by the general public and an interpretive display of early backcountry travel should be considered within all or some of the rooms." 143 Ultimately the wall remained for another decade. In 2014 this wall is gone but there is evidence of it; the floor area that it enclosed is unpainted, while the rest of the main room is painted grey.

1988/ Wilderness Designation

When Olympic National Park, including Enchanted Valley became a designated wilderness area in 1988, ONP reasserted that the Enchanted Valley Chalet and several other existent backcountry ranger stations were still absolutely necessary for the park's operations 144 Furthermore, the Chalet was a protected historical resource, indisputably eligible for the National Register.

1995/Alterations by NPS

Throughout the 1980s and 1990s the Enchanted Valley Chalet continued to serve as a seasonal ranger station and emergency shelter. In 1994 Quinault Ranger Rodger Blain requested that the park approve some changes to the first story. He recommended making the emergency shelter smaller to limit its misuse and give the rangers more living space. 145 In an email to park staff he described the rangers' living conditions as "worse than sparse." 146

In late August a group of park employees from the Maintenance and Cultural Resources departments made a trip to Enchanted Valley to examine the building. They observed carpenter ant activity. They also identified the old bathroom that once had a raised floor and central partition. The bathtub was nowhere to be found-exactly when it was removed is still unknown. Ellen Gage, ONP Historic Architect designed a way to improve the ranger quarters and better contain visitor use. The emergency shelter served a critical need and had to remain open year round; however, it attracted high impact use. By this time nearly every surface, including the ceilings, had been graffitied by guests.

During the following summer park staff finally removed the "ugly wall" around the staircase and enclosed one portion of the main room to serve as the emergency shelter. 147 With this new arrangement, the ranger station function incorporated both upper floors and approximately 80% of the ground floor. The park used it to store a large cache of supplies including Trail Crew tools, Search and Rescue materials, and the rangers' backcountry gear. There was no interior door connecting the ranger quarters and the emergency shelter. The remaining shelter space is a rectangle plan roughly ten feet by twelve feet.

2002/Archeology

In the following decade, NPS staff made no significant changes to the building but were active in the surrounding area. ONP archeologists recorded an archeological site encompassing the Chalet and three other "loci" in the fall of 2002. ONP Archeologist, Dave Conca used a metal detector to define the location, shape, and size of these three features. In the subsequent Archeological Site Inventory report he described the characteristics:

Locus 1: A roughly rectangular area measuring 28 x 38 meters identified by metal detector "hits" on a flat area 50 feet west of the Chalet. [...]
Locus 2: A roughly rectangular area measuring 38 x 22 feet. [...] A concentration of stones in the northeast corner may represent part of a structural foundation. [...]
Locus 3: Two adjacent rock-lined depressions located 50 feet southwest of the Chalet. The pits are rectangular and the larger pit includes logs resting across the width of the pit. A low berm surrounds the north, south, and west sides of the pits. 148


The site was not excavated; however, subsurface probing revealed nails, wire, spikes, bolts, "and other hardware consistent with building construction." Locus 1 and Locus 2 are thought to have been related to two historic structures noted in early photos of the area and described by members of the Olson family. 149 They may have been linked to the Forest Service patrol cabin, the Olson trap shack, the Chalet's woodshed, or a privy. Locus 3 is thought to have been a trash dump.

2003/Restoration Plans and River Threat

After an unusually dry summer, two storm events flooded northwest Washington in quick succession in mid-October, 2003. 150 At Lake Quinault the Quinault River's discharge leapt from roughly 400 cubic feet per second to over 35,000 cubic feet per second within ten days. 151 The East Fork was flooded during these events and in the aftermath its main channel moved west towards the Chalet. In 2002, ONP Cultural Resources, Maintenance, and Compliance staff had begun planning for a cyclical maintenance and rehabilitation project at the Chalet. No substantial cyclic maintenance had been done after the 1980s restoration effort. Following the 2003 storms, ONP staff had to pursue these maintenance topics within the context of the river channel issues.

Paul Gleeson, Cultural Resources Division Chief and Dave Conca were in Enchanted Valley in late May 2004, along with a consultant named William L. Hose, a Supervisory Exhibits Specialist/ Carpentry Team Leader from the Historic Preservation Training Center in Frederick, MD. According to Hose's subsequent report:

"This brief trip focused on evaluating existing conditions of historic fabric and current issues on usage with the future use of the Chalet in mind. We also explored possibilities of the HPTC assisting in future work and providing training on historic preservation maintenance. [...]Paul and Dave were hiking in to map out the Quinault River at the site and study a problem with the river course, which had diverted dangerously close to the structure" 152


On the exterior, Hose observed that logs around the emergency shelter door had been damaged "as the result of water infiltration from a previous gable roof canopy over the door not being properly flashed." He recommended that this non-historic feature did serve a useful purpose by protecting the doorway, but that it might be better to build a shed type roof instead. Otherwise, the logs were in good condition despite needing to be cleaned and showing some damage from woodborers. Woodpeckers had done considerable damage to exterior shakes on the dormer walls, leaving holes as large as three inches across. The roof was apparently past 75% of its life expectancy and expected to last no more than five years. The chimney needed some bricks replaced but was otherwise in good condition. Finally, Hose documented damage to window sashes and surrounding trim caused by rangers taking the shutters on and off through the open windows. He recommended several changes that would make the shutters easier to install.

Regarding the interior, Hose's comments were mostly about potential ways to improve the visitor and ranger use while protecting the structure from further damage. The four suggestions were: 1. a hall constructed along the kitchen wall with a door leading into the ranger's quarters, 2. using one of the upstairs rooms above kitchen as the ranger's room, 3. installing a solid core, dead bolted door connecting the emergency shelter and ranger quarters, and 4. building a separate storage building/emergency shelter. This fourth option was recommended because: "even when stored in flammable storage lockers, and properly vented to the exterior, flammables should not be stored in historic structures - period. [...] Moving the emergency use area to a separate structure [...] would also improve fire safety and security issues on the Chalet, by providing separate shelter for hikers during periods when the ranger is not housed there and monitoring use."

Meanwhile, Gleeson and Conca reported back on changes in the river channel. According to a press release issued by ONP in June "October's heavy rains dramatically changed the East Fork Quinault River's channel through Enchanted Valley, bringing it approximately 25 feet from the Chalet. Prior to the autumn storms, the river's path was approximately 170 feet from the Chalet." 153 Gleeson and Conca's report also identified a possible solution:

What the group found is that flow near the Chalet is not the main flow of the channel. It appears that the Chalet is only at risk in high water or flood events. There is a cottonwood tree directing high flows towards the bank near the Chalet. When the water is low, it flows under the tree. It appears that when the water is high, the tree directs the flow towards the bank by the Chalet. There is potential for cutting or moving the cottonwood to redirect the flow. [...] We need to look at the least intrusive solution. However, we need to look at long- term solutions if this least intrusive alternative is unsuccessful. 154


From this point on, the maintenance concerns were secondary to the river threat. ONP began an Environmental Assessment (EA) "to identify and evaluate feasible alternatives, including no action, for Chalet preservation." It included a plan for preservation projects at the Chalet, which would apply if structure was "no longer at risk from river movement or erosion." ONP staff would repair the chimney, replace shakes to repair all woodpecker damage on the dormer walls, repaint/re-glaze windows as necessary, repaint shutters, make the shutters easier to install, replace the porch, and implement an "Integrated Pest Management program" for carpenter ants. Shakes for the new roof were to be collected on-site from a cedar log, thought to be the one felled by Teander Olson for the Olympic Recreation Company. 155

Through the ongoing EA process, alternatives evolved; there was public comment, and scoping done. Site visits and park meetings done during this time period resulted in developing alternatives. Information from this process also led to Emergency Stabilization Actions in 2005. A draft EA was completed in 2006. The process closed at that time because the river no longer appeared to pose an immediate threat to the Chalet.

During the summer, 2004, the first action was taken to protect the Chalet. ONP sought consultation from Paul Kennard, a NPS Regional Fluvial Geomorphologist. Based on Kennard's recommendations, a crew went to work in mid-August and conducted one small project. The downed cottonwood tree was cut back upstream of the Chalet. In the short term this successfully redirected the channel away from the building. 156 Because of this removal, the channel no longer headed directly towards the Chalet.

In winter 2005 the bank was eroded further leaving less than ten feet of terrace west of the Chalet. 157 On February 4, ONP issued a press release stating that "sometime between January 9 and January 29, the river's main flow shifted into the former side channel, increasing the rate of erosion close to the Chalet and bringing the river closer to the building."

To tackle the immediate threat, ONP staff went to the Chalet and removed supplies that would damage the river, such as fuel and equipment for trail maintenance, first aid, and search and rescue. These items were stored in several Knack boxes which were flown in by helicopter and deposited in Enchanted Valley southeast of the building. 158 Years later, these Knack boxes are still in the meadow and are used to safely store fuel outside the structure. The park also flew in gabion netting to have on-site if they decided to construct protective baskets along the river bank.

On June 18, 2005 Gleeson and Conca took Paul Kennard to Enchanted Valley. After mapping and observing the river conditions, Kennard determined that the 2003 flooding had left sediment deposits in the upper basin which caused "catastrophic" channel shifting, technically "avulsion." He wrote:

For reasons not yet understood, the entire upper watershed has 'unraveled,' with loss of most of the previous in-channel vegetation (and its attendant ability to store sediment), and concomitant recruitment of copious amounts of large trees from eroded stream banks. As a result, there is an 'outwash plain' of sediment and downed trees from upriver of the Ranger Station to above the confluence of Anderson Creek and the upper Quinault River. The presence of large, downed wood in the channel creates areas susceptible to sudden channel shifting during high stream flows, and a plethora of sediment provide ideal conditions for new channels to be excavated. When the channel suddenly shifts during high flows, and a new channel is created, copious amounts of sediment are released downstream, propagating further channel instability and movement down valley. 159


Given the situation, Kennard concluded that: 1. It was highly likely that the East Fork would shift again during the next winter, 2. It was "virtually certain" that the channel would shift "catastrophically" again within five years, and 3. Relocating the Chalet would be the only way to protect it "with any degree of certainty."

The EA for long-term management of the Chalet was already underway and had received public input in June, 2004; however, the continued erosion led ONP so seek public comments again. At that time the four alternatives under consideration in the EA were: "A. No Action Alternative, B. River Channel Manipulation and/or Bank Stabilization, C. Relocating the Chalet, and D. Removing the Chalet and Constructing a Smaller Ranger Station." 160

Regarding alternative B. Kennard had proposed either digging an overflow channel, digging a diversion channel, reinforcing the river banks, installing engineered log jams, or removing vegetation from the channel. 161 During the summer river levels were low and the channels were stable, which provided a necessary window for ONP to study the river and make plans before the water rose again in winter.

By July 26, 2005 the three alternatives under consideration were: "no action; use adaptive management in an attempt to save the natural and cultural resources of the area; or complete disassembly and removal of the Chalet from the area." 162 As ONP advanced through the formal EA process park staff asked, as a short term solution, "what emergency actions can be taken prior to the EA being completed?" 163 It was determined that the structure and its functions could be preserved without invasive measures that would require an EA.

A proposal called the "Enchanted Valley Chalet Short Term Emergency Stabilization Action Plan" was reviewed and approved by ONP Superintendent William G. Laitner on September 1, 2005. The plan would have a minimal impact on the area. For instance, a crew would work in the dry riverbed and use fallen trees as barbs instead of metal gabion baskets to reinforce the banks. 164

It was "determined through consultation with park biologists, resource specialists, and other staff that implementing this plan would result in no effect on the existing stream channel and the plan would not affect fisheries values. Implementing the plan would result in potential relief to the Chalet in case of a small to moderate storm event. These actions would protect the current administrative use of the Chalet for administrative function and would protect the Chalet as a historic property." 165 Laitner wrote: "In terms of wilderness values and compliance in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act, the action in nature and duration can be considered a 'day-to-day' operation to maintain the Chalet. This is a short term emergency action that will help us protect area resources, until a long-term plan and environmental assessment are finalized." 166

In September, park staff implemented the plan that was considered the absolute minimum needed to protect the Chalet through the winter of 2005-2006. A crew completed four actions while on-site from September 21-24. As Action One, a small channel obstructed by gravel and wood debris was reopened so that it would dilute the full force of the main channel during winter storms. As Action Two, the two downed cottonwoods that were partially removed in 2004 were cut back by an additional ten feet or so. Also, a downed log overhanging the side channel and three downed logs in the water were cut into lengths. As Action Three, three downed logs, or "barbs" were anchored in the dry riverbed beside the west bank. In high water they would slow the river current and minimize erosion of the bank. Finally, as Action Four, three live alders and three dead alders were cleared from a small channel to prevent it from damming upstream of the Chalet. 167 The 2006 draft EA characterized these actions as "non-invasive measures" that gave the channels and banks a strategic shape, thereby slowing the current and encouraging gravel deposition. 168

Unlike the work done in 2004, the action taken in 2005 did protect the Chalet through winter. An aerial photograph taken in February, 2006, showed that the main channel of the East Fork was more stable in its location. By May 2006, the side channels had also retreated and the structure was no longer in immediate danger. 169 The EA process continued into 2006 when a draft was completed.

The section of the East Fork that runs through Enchanted Valley developed an entirely new character and has been a volatile, dynamic force ever since the 2003 flood events. The "unraveling" that Kennard described is clearly evident by the sprawling stone river bed which used to be a large area of the grassy valley floor. During storm events the river widens considerably and its channels may change course quickly.

Sarah Woodard and Ernie Vail, former ONP Trails Supervisor, experienced one of these river events first hand while they were packing for a group of clients. In a 2014 interview, Ernie described a rain storm from 2005:

Enchanted Valley used to be all these green fields in a large area there, and the wife and I would camp there. [...]We were there in September and it rained hard. [...] The waterfalls were getting extremely high and I didn't really worry about it because there was no snow to melt--but it rained so hard. [...] We had nine doctors and lawyers from the Seattle- Bainbridge area and [...] Sarah had the good idea to move them up off the river to high ground because of the rain--and we went to bed. [...] It changed in the middle of the night.

It was about eleven-thirty when I got up to look. [We were] camped right out on the river, pretty much out from the Chalet. [...] Our table, our gear was starting to float away. Up above somewhere a log had shifted over and it changed the whole course of the river instantly. [...] It was raining so hard, with your headlamp on all you saw was a white sheet in front of you. I couldn't see past anything. [We] picked the whole tent up and waded through two feet of water up on to high land. It was a big tree right over by where the Chalet is where we found safe ground. But it took hours to move everything, and the last thing I moved was my llamas. They were standing in three foot of water by then, tethered out. I was underwater getting the screw stake out of the ground. [...]That was pretty horrific. [...]It was all pasture but now all it is, is just river bar. [...] The channel moved over a good hundred feet. 170


2007/National Register List

In 2007 the Chalet was added to the National Register of Historic Places, nominated under Criterion A for historic significance in commerce, recreation, entertainment and also under Criterion C for architectural significance. 171 The site boundary includes the open meadow surrounding the Chalet because this area creates an important visual context for the building. Its nomination was part of a larger multiple-places nomination prepared by various ONP researchers. Stephanie Toothman, NPS Regional Historian wrote the first draft in 1986 based on Evan's 1983 Historic Resources Study. Substantial work as done in 1998 by Gretchen Luxenburg, ONP Historian, and Jacilee Wray, ONP Anthropologist made final edits in 2005. All are credited authors on the multiple-places nomination form, which was finally submitted in 2007.

This designation has provided significant legal protection for the Enchanted Valley Chalet. According to ONP's current management plan, no National Register listed structure will "be removed or allowed to decay naturally without prior review by park and region cultural resource specialists, including approval by the NPS regional director and consultation with the state historic preservation office. 172 Furthermore, a National Register-listed structure cannot be removed without appropriate documentation prepared in accordance with the National Historic Preservation Act, and the documentation must be submitted to the Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) program.

2008/General Management Plan

ONP reaffirmed its plans to retain valuable shelters and historic structures in its most recent General Management Plan (GMP), completed in 2008. As a National Register-listed building, the Enchanted Valley Chalet was included in the GMP "List of Classified Structures for the Park," and was also listed as a "Potential Cultural Landscape." 173 The List of Classified Structures is a database containing information about historic structures including the structure's significance, condition, use, threats, treatments, cost estimates for treatments, and physical description. According to the GMP, properties listed as Classified Structures "are to be treated as cultural resources by law, policy, or decision reached through the [NPS] planning process." 174 This classification offers significant protection for the Chalet because it means that ONP will pursue basic preservation maintenance and comply with cultural resource protection and preservation policies regarding historic structures. The building will be protected in every scenario, unless a formal process determines that alterations or deterioration are "unavoidable." 175

The 2008 GMP also codified the way in which ONP manages historic structures in wilderness areas. The GMP states that laws which preserve cultural resources, such as the National Historic Preservation Act and Archeological Resources Protection Act, "are applicable in wilderness." 176 In wilderness areas these laws are administered to preserve the wilderness character. As a cultural resource, and one that predated the park's 1988 Wilderness Designation, the Enchanted Valley Chalet is generally preserved and managed using methods "that are consistent with the preservation of wilderness character and values." 177

2010/Restoration

There was only one other major restoration project at the Chalet after the Olympians and National Park Service made repairs in the 1980s. In summer of 2010 Donald "Duck" Houk, ONP Backcountry Carpenter, and his crew completed several interior and exterior projects at the Chalet, with oversight by Gage and Gleeson. The crew included Jeremiah Brown, John Stanek, and Keith Robinson, with assistance from Lea Over and Kate Houk. Afterwards, Houk and Over produced a detailed condition assessment report which includes a description of the building, as well as short term and long term preservation goals. 178

For this project, the Olympians Hiking Club donated $7,196.15 remaining from their 1982-85 "Friends of the Enchanted Valley Chalet" fundraising campaign. 179 A large part of that sum was collected after the '80s projects because the club, led by Anne Moisanen, continued to raise money for the Chalet. 180

On the northeast exterior wall several logs had been damaged when a small gable roof over the shelter door broke under the weight of heavy snow. This roof was not replaced because the gable shed water down the wall logs and was not an original feature. The crew replaced two large log sections over the shelter door and windows, as well as seven small log sections on either side of the door. They built new steps below the emergency shelter door. One collar tie, two purlins, and all wall shakes on the dormer were replaced. All windows and doors received a new coat of paint. The Chalet's cedar roof shakes were replaced and the chimney was rebuilt from the roof flashing up. 181

The porch roof was extended to better match its historical design, as it was when the National Park Service acquired the building. Photos from 1953 show Superintendent Overly's family cooking on the porch. In these pictures, both the deck and roof were roughly fifteen across and the west end was an enclosed wood storage shed. 182 Ranger logs from the 1970s mention bear damage to the woodshed. 183 At some point during the late 1970s or early 1980s the woodshed was removed and the porch roof rebuilt to cover just the west end of the deck. In 2010 Houk and his crew replaced the upright posts and extended to roof to cover the porch. They did not replace the woodshed.

On the Chalet interior two significant changes were made. A privacy partition wall was built adjacent the emergency room to create a new Ranger bedroom. This wall is open on the top and bottom to allow air and light into the central room. The previous bedroom then became a dining room. The crew also installed a door leading from the central ground level space into the emergency room.

2012/Archeology

In 2012 (or June 2011 according to photos), ONP archeologist Dave Conca further investigated the Enchanted Valley archeological site. As this point the East Fork Quinault River had washed away Locus 1 and Locus 2, the two sites that were thought to be related to historic outbuildings. According to a 2014 summary of this archeological resource:

At that time a number of historic period artifacts were observed along with more recent debris. It is thought that the refuse pit includes artifacts dating from the use of the Chalet as a lodge along with material deposited through the years by campers and NPS employees. A small, unsystematic sample of material from the refuse dump was collected by backcountry rangers as the feature began to erode into the river. This collection has not been formally analyzed. 184


As of 2014, Locus 3 is entirely washed away. All that remains of the archeological site includes the Chalet and a small part of the meadow to the east and southeast of the building.

2013/River Threat

In October 2013 Jason Benson, ONP Preservation Carpenter visited the Chalet to make a condition assessment and plan preservation action for the following summer. He observed that the East Fork Quinault River was approximately nine feet from the northwest corner of the Chalet. 185 At this point the river's location was cause for concern, but not an emergency. ONP planned to go ahead with preservation work including: replacing the dormer ridge beam and one dormer collar tie, replacing two log ends on the exterior, replacing several exterior logs, treating exterior logs with rot stabilizer, replacing interior bead board, installing safety equipment in the chimney, repointing weathered mortar joints, and restoring the original staircase newel post. 186

Rainfall in the Quinault area was above average that winter. Storm events and high water levels caused the main channel to shift by at least fifteen feet after Benson's initial report. This change was first discovered by hikers including former Ranger Lana Myers who gave ONP the first notification when she emailed photos of the Chalet in early January, 2014. 187 These pictures showed that the river was within eighteen inches of the building. The park commissioned aerial photographs which were taken on January 14. 188

On January 17, the park issued a press release, "Historic Enchanted Valley Chalet Threatened by Changing River Course; Park Assessing Options." It was announced that "a routine monitoring program of biweekly aerial photography flights will provide park cultural and natural resource experts with current information about the upper East Fork Quinault and the Chalet. These experts are also working closely with the Pacific West Regional Office of the National Park Service, the Washington State Historic Preservation Officer, and other partners and concerned citizens." 189

Also on January 17, ONP Superintendent Sarah Creachbaum initiated consultation with the State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO). In this letter the Superintendent wrote that "the Chalet's location within the Olympic Wilderness combined with its location on the East Fork Quinault floodplain makes this a challenging situation." 190 ONP and the SHPO determined that the state of affairs was an emergency and authorized park staff to empty the Chalet while it was still safe to enter. 191 Additional photos were taken by Ranger Sanny Lustig on January 24. They showed that the river edge was within two feet (one foot in some places) of the Chalet's northwest wall. 192

Photos taken on March 8 showed the riverbank eroded right up to the Chalet's north and west corners. They also showed that the building was undercut at the center of the northwest wall. A sill log was detached at one end. Pieces of wood, a section of repaired foundation, and two large sections of the original concrete foundation had detached and were visible in the river channel. 193

On March 12, Benson led a crew at the Chalet, preparing for the likely outcome that it would partially or completely collapse in the river. The crew removed equipment, fuel, and other supplies which were considered a threat to environmental conditions. Window sashes were removed and stored safely on site. These windows are the only historic elements that were rescued from the building. Photographs from this trip show the interior and exterior of the Chalet. At this point the foundation all along the wall was in the river, including the foundation's west corner. The north corner foundation and hanging sill log were still attached. In several places the Chalet was more undercut. Protruding from the river were sections of the foundation, wood fragments, and a piece of metal pipe. On March 20, ONP issued a second press release, "Dynamic Quinault River Continues to Shift Course, Threaten Historic Enchanted Valley Chalet," including one of the March 12 photos. 194 It stated that "As of late last week, the river has undercut the Chalet by approximately four feet."

ONP began preparing this Historic American Building Survey [HABS] in April, in reaction to the river threat. HABS standard large format photographs were taken by photographer Lani Doely on May 21-22. Doely documented the Chalet's exterior, emergency shelter interior (shot through the door), and kitchen interior (shot through the south window). She was hired by ONP and assisted by park interns Jonathan Schmitz and Charlotte Helmer.

Photos from May 25 showed that the river was undercutting the building by roughly eight feet. Around that time, the Washington Trust for Historic Preservation placed the Chalet on its "Most Endangered Properties List" and released an advocacy alert. Their statement said:

"Park officials must consider the fact that the Enchanted Valley Chalet sits within a designated Wilderness Area. While such designation does not prohibit proper care and stewardship for historic resources, past litigation has park officials wary of taking action that could be misconstrued as violating the Wilderness Act. In the meantime, Chalet supporters simply want to ensure future generations can experience the Chalet in its original context." 195


On May 21, the park issued a press release, "Public Invited to Review and Comment on Plan to Temporarily Relocate the Enchanted Valley Chalet; Long-term Options to be Examined in Second, Follow-up Analysis." 196 ONP Public Information Officer Barb Maynes wrote, "Recent photographs show that the river has undercut the building by approximately eight feet."

2014/Moving Plans

As of September 1st, 2014, ONP is preparing to move the Chalet approximately fifty to one hundred feet away from its current location until further analysis can be completed. According to the Environment Assessment for this project several alternatives were considered: 1. Allowing natural river migration and erosion to occur and removing the building once it is irreparably damaged; 2. Intervening with a minimal river manipulation similar to the work done in 2005; 3. Intervening with extensive river manipulation and bank stabilization; 4. Permanently relocating the Chalet within Enchanted Valley; 4. Remove the Chalet by a controlled burn in its current location; and 5. Dismantling the Chalet and removing all materials. 197

Moving the Chalet will take up to two weeks and require a team of professionals, a house mover and a supporting crew of four to six people, as well as pack stock and helicopter support. The helicopter staging site will be Bunch Field, which is outside the wilderness area. At the project site, the crew will use a hydraulic power pack pump to lift the Chalet. It is estimated to weigh approximately 90 tons. It will be supported on multiple hydraulic crib jacks and steel rails, and then moved on additional lubricated steel rails.

ONP has completed an EA and fully considered the natural and human environment which might be impacted by moving the Chalet. Most of the impact to natural resources, visitor experience, and the wilderness character of Enchanted Valley are expected to be minimal. It was determined that the increased foot traffic and new location of the Chalet will have some long-term, minor to moderate adverse effect on soils and vegetation at the site. Within or near the project area there is potential habitat for threatened bull trout, spotted owls, and marbled murrelets- threatened or endangered species which may be temporary displaced by noise, stock animals, and people. As for water resources in Enchanted Valley, moving the Chalet is expected to have a long-term beneficial impact on the East Fork Quinault River because it means that the building will not fall into the river channel. Furthermore, ONP specialists predict that the Quinault Indian Nation will benefit if from the protection of the water resources in Lake Quinault and the Quinault River. Finally, traffic delays and noise during the move will inconvenience park users in the short term, but there is also a long term benefit in preventing the building's collapse.

The primary impact will be on the park's cultural resources. Although leaving the Chalet in its current location would obviously be an "adverse effect," separating the building from its historic foundation and relocating it would also be an "adverse effect." ONP's Environment Assessment found that the temporary relocation "would result in long-term, moderate, 'adverse effect' due to the change in location." There was some concern about whether the Chalet will retain its listing on the National Register of Historic Places; however, the Deputy keeper of the National Register has determined that the move will "not diminish the integrity of the resource to the point NRHP listing would be lost. Without a move, the entire structure would be lost and thus delisted." 198

Another cultural resource, the Enchanted Valley archeological site, may benefit from this move in the long term. The Environmental Assessment predicts that moving the building might expose unknown archeological resources underneath, in which case ONP archeologists will be able to evaluate and document the original site before it is washed away. 199

The Environmental Assessment was open for public review for sixteen days, from May 21- June 5. During that time the park received 182 pieces of correspondence from individuals, including Anne Moisanen's daughter, and formal letters from regional organizations. There were letters from the North Olympic Timber Action Committee, Olympic Park Associates, the Back Country Horsemen of Washington, the National Parks Conservation Association, the Wilderness Society, the Washington Trails Association, Wilderness Watch, the Olympic Forest Coalition, and the Washington Trust for Historic Preservation. 200

The proposed action and Environmental Assessment received a "Determination of No Impairment" 201 on July 21st and a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) 202 signed by NPS Pacific West Regional Director Christine Lehnertz on July 25. With the assessment completed and FONSI signed, ONP staff can proceed with implementing the plan before the end of summer. This temporary measure is intended to give all concerned parties more time to decide what should happen next.

Conclusion

Countless old rustic buildings in Olympic National Park have been wrecked by avalanches, crushed under trees, burned by visitors, removed by park staff, made unrecognizable through alteration, or otherwise allowed to decay, yet the Enchanted Valley Chalet has survived for several reasons.

1. Historical Significance

Because of its connection to local, regional, and U.S. history, the Enchanted Valley Chalet is a protected cultural resource. The most important topics are: exploration of the Olympic interior; settlement in the Quinault Valley; recreation in the Olympics; the Olson family; the Olympic Recreation Company; Olympic National Forest; the Cleator Plan; the Olympic Loop and trans-Olympic highways; Olympic National Park; the Civilian Conservation Corps; the Student Conservation Corps; the Aircraft Warning Service; The Olympians hiking club; and ONP policy regarding shelters, ranger stations, and wilderness stewardship.

2. Adaptive Reuse

For over sixty years the building has been actively used as a Ranger Station for Olympic National Park and as an emergency shelter for the public. Prior to that, it was used by the U.S. Army as an Aircraft Warning Service lookout. This adaptive reuse has meant that people continued to maintain the structure, occupy it, and add to its history.

3. Contemporary Significance

Beyond its historical relevance, people who experienced the Enchanted Valley Chalet since it was purchased by the park still have a connection to it. This has been demonstrated by Quinault residents who allowed the park to remove Graves Creek Inn but objected to their removing the Chalet; by members of The Olympians who volunteered to restore it in the '80s and then continued showing up each season to help ONP rangers open and close the building; and lastly, by ONP staff, especially the "Enchanted Rangers" who came to the Chalet on their own time during the winter, reunited annually for the Enchanted Valley Food Fest, and who have recently advocated for preserving the Chalet.

4. Design and Construction

The Olympic Recreation Company's design and Tom Criswell's skillful execution produced a dependable structure which has not been very difficult for Olympic National Park to preserve. It underwent two significant preservation projects in 1983-85 and 2010 but was otherwise maintained through cyclical maintenance. Furthermore, it is sited near fresh water and along a main trail. After eighty years in the backcountry is has not been hit by trees, slides, or avalanches like the Low Divide Chalet, and although this is partly due to luck it can also be attributed to adept planning and design. Many of the Enchanted Valley Chalet's original features make it useful, such as tight fitting log joints, a strong foundation, the steeply pitched roof, natural light in every room, two forms of entrance and egress, and plenty of space for living and storing supplies.


Part II. Architectural Information
A. General Statement

1. Architectural character:

It is difficult to say the Enchanted Valley Chalet is attributed to a particular architect, because potential architects include several members of the Olson brothers, their partners at the Olympic Recreation Company, recreational developers in the US Forest Service, Tom and Glenn Criswell, and Roy Streator. The design was undoubtedly influenced by building techniques that are traditional to the Olympic Peninsula, but also by U.S. Forest Service's special use permit, the Olympic Chalet Company's Low Divide Chalet, the Olympic Recreation Company's Graves Creek Inn, and Arts and Craft style houses in Grays Harbor.

The Chalet is a significant example of vernacular architecture which is common on the Olympic Peninsula and within Olympic National Park. This tradition was well described in the National Register of Historic Places Multiple Properties Nomination for Olympic National Park:

"Largely as a result of isolation, poor or nonexistent transportation routes, and the paucity of trained architects and technological equipment or knowledge, building styles during the peninsula's early phases of development did not duplicate features characteristic of any one particular style. Instead, buildings display design characteristic that reflect the Olympic Peninsula's unique amalgam of available materials, topographic and climate constraints, and the knowledge and skill of local builders." 203


The Chalet's original design demonstrates these vernacular traits. It was constructed dimensional lumber produced by local mills and from logs, peeled-poles, rough split cedar shakes and boards all collected from trees felled on site. The Olympic Recreation Company relied on skilled local carpenters to complete the work; Tom Criswell, Roy Streator, and Roy Knack were from Quinault, Grays Harbor, and Montesano.

Most of the design was driven by the need for a functional, inexpensive building that could be constructed by a small crew. Practical features include a steeply sloped roof designed to shed snow, a fenestration pattern dictated by the need to have natural light in each room, and the absence of an expensive fireplace. The log and pole framing, used of locally milled lumber, and uses of materials sourced on site are practical parts of the design and are also consistent with local building traditions. According to the National Register Nomination:

"Log and pole frame structures, often considered the traditional American frontier building type, served as appropriate shelters for the early settlers of the Olympic Peninsula. Constructing buildings on land many miles from mills, and often without the tools or knowledge to design and construct buildings that emulated contemporary architectural styles, the first peninsula settlers, as well as the early USFS rangers, used logs and poles to build their early structures. [...] Well into the twentieth century, after the completion of a major highway and the rapid appearance of vehicular transportation and numerous lumber mills on the peninsula, log and pole structures continued as the preferred or only possible building type in the more remote and inaccessible interior sections of the peninsula. 204


The Chalet is related to other recreational and commercial developments in the park, but is also distinguished by its remote location in Enchanted Valley. It is one of just four extant historic sites that are associated with commercial development of the Olympic Peninsula. The other three, Lake Crescent Lodge, Rosemary Inn, and Lake Quinault Lodge (which is on USFS land), are all front country developments. 205 This separation from easy transportation routes is largely why the Enchanted Valley Chalet has a rustic design, more readily associated with log cabins and log shelters in the Olympic backcountry. NPS historian Gail E. Evans observed that "although its late construction date places it more in the time period of the Rustic style architectural phase, the remote location of the Chalet, and the building's construction by a local peninsula craftsman exposed to the pioneer skills of log building, established its clear link to regional pioneer craft traditions." 206

The Olympic Recreation Company and Olympic Chalet Company operated the only backcountry hostels in the Olympic interior. The Enchanted Valley Chalet was built immediately after Graves Creek Inn, and the two buildings were very similar. In some ways, Graves Creek Inn also resembles the Low Divide Chalet, which was designed and built roughly five years before the Inn. It is likely that the Enchanted Valley Chalet was partly or significantly modeled after the low Divide Chalet and Graves Creek Inn. According to the National Register nomination, "such commercial ventures to capitalize on the wilderness setting of the Olympic Interior reveal America's 1920s and 1930s dual perception that nature was to be both revered and exploited for commercial use." Today, the Enchanted Valley Chalet remains as the last surviving example of their impact. 207

Some elements of front-country design did permeate into the Olympic interior, mainly the Arts and Craft movement which celebrated local craftsmanship and the use of local materials. Evans observed that "the precise graduation in log size from the sill logs to the roof line, its well-proportioned lines, and its precision diagonally cut dovetail corner joints all contribute to the chalet's high artistic value and excellence of craftsmanship. 208 Furthermore, the Chalet's three-over-one and six-over-one double hung windows are reminiscent of Arts and Craft style residential designs. By 1930 the style was well established. It is likely that Knack Manufacturing produced windows for Arts and Craft houses in the Grays Harbor area and used a similar design for the Enchanted Valley Chalet and Graves Creek Inn.

2. Condition of fabric:

The building was restored in 1980 and 2010 and is generally in good condition. A preservation project was planned for 2014 and had to be postponed. At last assessment, the preservation carpenter planned several projects including: replacing the dormer ridge beam and one dormer collar tie, replacing two log ends on the exterior, replacing several exterior logs, treating exterior logs with rot stabilizer, replacing interior bead board, installing safety equipment in the chimney, repointing weathered mortar joints, and restoring the original staircase newel post.

B. Description of Exterior

  1. Overall dimensions: The building has a rectangle plan approximately 28' x 42'. It is 2 ½ stories tall.

  2. Foundations: The rectangular foundation is roughly a foot wide around the perimeter. Its core was primarily made of rocks from the East Fork riverbed surrounded in concrete which was packed in to the site. "1930," the year of construction, is inscribed on the north corner. A perimeter of river stones approximately two feet wide surrounds the Chalet and provides sufficient drainage. One section of the foundation is unoriginal, but otherwise much of the original concrete material remains intact and is in good condition. Foundation height at each corner of the building varies according to the natural inconsistencies of the land, but is roughly 5" to 1'3" high. Each foundation wall has two vents. As of August, 2014 large sections of the foundation have fallen into the East Fork Quinault River. When the Chalet is moved in mid-September, 2014 it will be lifted off the foundation and will rest on steel rails.

  3. Walls: The exterior walls are constructed of silver fir logs notched with dovetail diagonal-cut joints. The first story logs are 10" in diameter, and the upper story logs are 8" in diameter. The first and second story logs are hewn on three sides. Several logs on the northeast and northwest walls were replaced in 1983 and 2010. Log ends at the south corner were replaced in 1983. The gable walls were roughly constructed, but this is only visible from the inside; few of the gable wall logs are hewn, they protrude unevenly on the interior, and some were only partially pealed. Throughout the building most wall logs fit together tightly and there is chinking in just a few places. The third story dormer walls are constructed of horizontal boards attached to log pole framing and clad in cedar shakes.

  4. Structural system, framing: The roof structure consists of a pole ridge beam, rafters, purlins, collar ties, and supporting log knee braces at the gable ends. High collar ties are made of split cedar. The dormer structure has pole rafters, purlins, posts, and a king post truss against the southwest wall. The first floor decking is attached to log floor joists which are 30" on center and approximately 14"-16" inches above the ground. The joists sit on a single split cedar summer beam located in the center of the floor width. The floor joists on the outboard end are on blocks and are not attached to the sill log--in 1983 the sill logs were replaced and the blocks were inserted to remedy the floor joist outboard support. The second floor decking is the same and sits on log joists which are notched square to meet the exterior wall logs. They rest on a 2" ledge where the 10" diameter wall logs end and the 8" diameter wall logs begin. All joists run southwest to northeast.

  5. Porches, stoops: The southeast façade has a front porch and overhang shed roof supported by log posts and clad in cedar shakes. The porch floor slopes away from the building. The northeast doorway has a stoop with two large steps.

  6. Chimneys: A square-base brick chimney is placed in the north corner of the kitchen, and is connected to a wood stove. There is no fireplace. On the second floor it intersects a sleeping room. It was substantially rebuilt in 1981 and rebuilt again above the roof line in 2010. The stainless steel flashing and cap are in good condition; however, some exposed mortar joints are deteriorating above the roof line.

  7. Openings:
    1. Doors: The front door is right of center on the southeast wall, and opens into the kitchen. It is usually locked. A second exterior door is on the northeast wall and leads into the emergency shelter. It is usually left unlocked. Both doors are constructed of vertical boards with three horizontal braces on the interior side. Both were painted in 2010. The kitchen also has a screen door with rustic wood handles.
    2. Windows: Windows on all exterior walls are of four different types including: 3-over-1 and 6-over-1, double hung sash windows; wood sash sliders, and four light fixed wood sashes. All windows are wood sash with multi-pane glazing over a single pane. All have plain board trim and a narrow projecting sill. All windows designed to open were in working order before they were removed in 2014.
      1. Southeast façade: The ground level has one set of side-by-side 6:1 single hung windows, and one set of 3:1 double slider windows right of the front door. The second level has three evenly spaced 3:1 single hung windows. The gable has two 3:1 single hung windows same as second level.
      2. Northeast façade: The ground level has one set of 3:1 double slider windows; one 6:1 single hung window; one set of side-by-side 6:1 single hung windows. The second level has four unevenly spaced 3:1 single hung windows.
      3. Northwest façade: The ground level has two sets of side-by-side 6:1 single hung windows. Second level: three evenly spaced 3:1 single hung windows. The gable has two 3:1 single hung windows same as second level.
      4. Southwest façade: The ground level has two sets of side-by-side 6:1 single hung windows. The second level has three 3:1 single hung windows; one set of two fixed 3:1windows. Historic photographs show that the opening for this window was originally half as wide. The dormer has two small fixed four pane windows.
    3. Shutters: Shutters on the ground floor windows open horizontally, and secured open or shut with hook-and-eye latches at the trim, and are barred with a metal bars on threaded rods and nuts. Shutters on the upper stories are hung from the top casement and close with hook-and-eye latches at the sill. All shutters, windows and trim were painted in 2010.

  8. Roof:
    1. Shape, covering: The Chalet has a gable roof with a 12/12 pitch clad in cedar shakes. The shakes are 36" with a 24" exposure. The original shakes were split from trees on site and have been replaced at least twice.
    2. Dormers: There is one dormer on the southwest side. It has roughly a 12/12 pitch and is clad in 36" cedar shakes, just like the main gable roof.

C. Description of Interior

  1. Floor plans: The Enchanted Valley Chalet has a rectangular plan approximately 28' x 42'. On the ground floor there are four rooms: a kitchen, dining room, L-shaped living space with partitioned sleeping room, and an emergency shelter. The second story has a storage room and six sleeping rooms of various sizes all opening onto a central hallway. The third story attic has an open plan under the gable roof. These three levels are connected by a single staircase oriented perpendicular to the northeast exterior wall and ascending from the large main room beside the kitchen.

  2. Stairways: The stairs leading from the ground level to the second level are located in the center of the building against the northeast wall. Three stairs against the wall lead to a small landing where they turn 90 degrees and rise to the second floor by eleven treads along the opposite side of the kitchen wall. The upper stairs run directly over the lower stairs. There is no newel post on the ground level or banister up to the landing. There is an original newel post at the inside corner of the landing and an original banister from the landing to the second floor. There is another original newel post on the second floor landing, a non- original newel post on the third floor, and a non-original banister from the second floor landing up to the third floor. The stairs were constructed of cedar collected on-site and the steps are painted grey.

  3. Flooring: The first and second floor decking is fir tongue-and-groove. The floor is in good condition although generally worn from use and age. It is painted gray. There are two layers of metal flooring nailed down below the staircase and two worn patches in the nearby floorboards. This metal flooring indicates the historic location of a second wood stove that was tied into the chimney, and the worn patches show where people stood or knelt to use the stove. The attic floor is decked in four foot long pieces of tongue and groove flooring nailed at each floor joist. These pieces look like the remaining flooring material from the first two floors. There are some gaps between the seams, as well as water damage, and previous repairs. In several areas of repair the wrong type of material, i.e. bead board, plywood and metal were used to cover holes and soft boards.

  4. Walls: The kitchen walls are original and are presumably framed with split cedar studs. They are clad with horizontal bead board on both sides. The ranger room wall perpendicular to the kitchen is presumably framed with 2" x 4" studs. It is clad with plywood on both sides, has minimal insulation, and is not original. The emergency room walls are framed with 2" x 4" studs and clad in plywood on one side. The privacy partition is framed with 2" x 4" posts around a plywood center and is open at the bottom. The second story walls are framed with split cedar studs irregularly spaced throughout. Each wall is clad with bead board on one side. The hallway and stairwell have bead board walls, but the storage and sleeping rooms are a mix of bead board and bare studs. Approximately 50 square feet of the original bead board is missing and has been replaced with plywood. The top of the walls terminate at the bottom of the summer beams leaving approximately six inches of space between the wall and the ceiling. There are no walls in the attic. Many areas of the walls throughout the Chalet have names of visitors and dates from the last several decades carved or painted.

  5. Ceilings: On the ground floor the ceiling is exposed second floor joists, 30" on center with a central summer log. The underside of the second floor tongue and groove decking is visible between the floor joists. On the second floor the ceiling is exposed attic floor joists, 30" on center. There are two summer beams in the center of the building four feet apart. Four posts on either side of the hallway support the summer beams. Many areas of the ceilings throughout the Chalet have names of visitors and dates from the last several decades carved or painted.

  6. Doorways and doors: There is a doorway connecting the kitchen a dining room. It probably had a door originally, but it is unclear when the door was removed. A non-original plywood door connects the dining room with the main room. In 2010 a metal door was installed between the main room and emergency door. It was removed in 2014 along with the windows. The second story sleeping rooms were originally hung with doors but have been open doorways for a long time-- it is unclear when they were removed. The storage room door is made of plywood.

  7. Decorative features:
    1. In one of the second floor sleeping rooms there is a plywood sign which reads: "Welcome/to Enchanted Valley Chalet/restored by student/conservation program/sponsored by the/National Parks Assn./1959/Please think of others by/1. Opening window's carefully/2. Observing all signs."
    2. There is a landscape painted on one of the oldest, but no original interior walls. It appears to have been painted by a visitor or a ranger when the staircase was enclosed by a rough plywood wall. The mural was painted on the emergency shelter side of the old ranger room wall between this staircase wall (now removed) and the exterior wall. It depicts the upper end of Enchanted Valley and is signed with the initials "BR."
    3. On the second floor landing there is a brass plaque which reads: "In memory of/T.E. Criswell/and/Glenn L. Criswell/Father's Day 1993."

  8. Mechanical equipment:
    1. Heating: An operational cast iron wood cooking stove is piped into the chimney in the kitchen. There is a vent in the ceiling above the stove which lets heat into the sleeping room above.
    2. Cooling: There is a refrigeration box in the east corner of the kitchen. It has only one cooler vent (above), which is unusual, so a second one may have been removed (below).
    3. Ventilation: The foundation has two vents on each wall.
    4. Plumbing: The kitchen sink is plumbed with running water from a nearby creek. The piped are connected to a utility box on the kitchen porch.

  9. Original furnishings: It is hard to know how much of the original furniture remains in the Chalet. The kitchen cabinets, and hanging cabinets, and refrigeration box are probably all original. According to John Olson, most of the original furniture was broken up and burned for firewood. As on 2014 there is no furniture in the attic; the second floor has a collection of built-in end tables made of halved logs, built-in bunk-bed frames, and wood tables of various sizes; and the ground floor has several large tables, benches, wood storage racks, and folding chairs. Also on the ground floor are some small shelves, an upright storage box, and a large bench with curved arms and a cedar shake back. This large bench resembles one that Elvin Olson described in a 1975 interview. The original reception desk and Adirondack-style chairs are certainly gone. Some tables maybe be all or partly original. In 1995 it was reported that the main dining table had a cedar top with drawings of the Chalet on the underside, but this has not been seen since.

D. Site
  1. Historic Landscape design: The Enchanted Valley Chalet stands in a grassy open meadow with nearby surrounding forests and steep valley walls. The grassy meadow vegetation is comprised of both native and non-native grasses and herbs with scattered red alder ( Alnus rubra ) and bigleaf maple ( Acer macrophyllum ). The surrounding forest contains Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii ), western red-cedar ( Thuja plicata ), and western hemlock ( Tsuga heterophylla ) along with scattered Sitka spruce ( Picea sitchensis ). The valley walls have Alaska yellow cedar ( Cupressus nootkatensis ) on the cliff bands. Understory is comprised of moist-site shrubs and ferns including evergreen huckleberry ( Vaccinium ovatum ), vine maple ( Acer circinatum ), devil's club ( Oplopanax horridus ), sword fern ( Polystichum munitum ), deer fern ( Blechnum spicant ), and lady fern ( Athyrium filix-femina ). There are numerous moss, lichen, and liverwort species. species. 209 Roughly fifteen campsites are scattered along the riverbank, among trees at the forest edge, and in the meadow. There is a water spigot southwest of the building. A cedar hitching post has been rebuilt several times, on the south side of the Chalet. The last one was a casualty of the river channel's movement in 2014.

  2. Outbuildings: Historically, there was a trap shack built by the Olson family, a U.S. Forest Service patrol cabin, a woodshed, a privy, and occasional tent camps near the Chalet. Currently there are two privies in the meadow.

Part III. Sources of Information
  1. Architectural drawings:
    See Appendix A for plans and elevations.

  2. Historic Photographs (1920s-1950s):
    See Appendix B for historic photographs.

  3. Contemporary Photographs (1980s-2014):
    See Appendix C for NPS photographs.

  4. Contemporary Photographs (May, 2014):
    See Appendix D for HABS standard photographs.

  5. Selected Sources:
    See Appendix E for complete bibliography.
    1. Benson, Jason. "FY14 Project Planning." 18 November 2013. Most recent condition assessment of the Enchanted Valley Chalet, prepared by the ONP Preservation Carpenter. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection. Originally located in ONP active files, I:\Backcountry Carp\Enchanted Valley\"Chalet FY14 Planning."
    2. Evans, Gail H. E. "Historic Resource Study of Olympic National Park." NPS Pacific Northwest Region Cultural Resources Division. 1983. Extensive survey of ONP with several chapters that are relevant to the Enchanted Valley Chalet, such as "Settlement: Quinault River Drainage," "Recreational Development: Interior Mountains," and "WWII Military Involvement: Aircraft Warning Service." ONP Archives.
    3. Geerdes, Raymond. "Enchanted Valley and its Chalet." 1954. Short essay that is part history, part interpretive aid, and part memoir, written by an ONP Ranger shortly after the park reopened the Enchanted Valley Chalet. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
    4. Houk, Donald "Duck" and Lea Over. "Enchanted Valley Chalet 2010 Condition Assessment." 2010. Detailed and illustrated report on the building's condition, prepared after preservation work was completed in 2010. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection. Originally located in ONP active files, I:\Backcountry Carp\Enchanted Valley\Enchanted Valley CA.indd. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
    5. Laitner, William G. "Enchanted Valley Chalet, Short Term Emergency Stabilization Action Plan Review and Approval." Memorandum to Paul Gleeson. 1 September 2005. Complete plan for stabilizing the East Fork Quinault River, with approval by ONP Superintendent. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection. Originally located in Paul Gleeson Collection. "Notebook on Enchanted Valley Chalet."
    6. Masters, D.A. "Certificate of Appraisal for Graves Creek Inn and Enchanted Valley Chalet." 20 September 1949. Appraisal prepared for NPS during negations with the Olympic Recreation Company for sale of its holdings. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
    7. ONP. "Backcountry Historic Structures Report." No date. Extensive survey of ONP with several chapters that are relevant to the Enchanted Valley Chalet, including "ONP Historical Context," "Backcountry Building Development," and "Enchanted Valley Chalet: Conservation Assessment, Evaluation, & Recommendation." ONP Archives.
    8. ONP. "Draft Environmental Assessment for the Management of the Enchanted Valley Chalet." July 2006. Page 10. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection. Originally located at http://parkplanning.nps.gov/ Retrieved 7 August 2014.
    9. ONP. "Emergency Action to Temporarily Relocate the Enchanted Valley Chalet for the Protection of the East Fork Quinault River: Environmental Assessment." May 2014. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection. Originally located at www.parkplanning.nps.gov. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
    10. ONP. "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form." October 1990. ONP Archives. Paul Gleeson Collection. "Notebook on Enchanted Valley Chalet."
    11. ONP Ranger Logbooks. 1950s-2000s. Extensive documentation of day-to-day activity at the Enchanted Valley Chalet Ranger Station, including notes about the number of visitors, wildlife activity, ranger tasks, weather, fire, search and rescue, and much more. ONP Archives. Acc No. OLYM-742. Box 12.
    12. United States Forest Service. "Term Permit." 1 January 1929. Legal document prepared for Olympic Recreation Company to allow special use of the Enchanted Valley Recreation Unit. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.

  6. Interviews: The tapes and transcripts are available at the ONP Archives.
    1. Gregory, Allen. Al is a member of The Olympians and held the office of club historian. The tapes and transcript are available at the ONP Archives. He was interviewed by Charlotte Helmer on 20 August 2014.
    2. Olson, John. John is the son of Ignar and Jessie Olson. He was interviewed by Charlotte Helmer on 21 August 2014.
    3. Vail, Ernie. Ernie was formerly Trails Supervisor at ONP and now operates a packing business in the park. He was interviewed by Charlotte Helmer on 22 August 2014.

  7. Likely Sources Not Yet Investigated:
    1. Interviews
      1. Paul Gleeson, former Chief of Cultural Resources at ONP. Paul assisted with research and editing of this report but no interview has been recorded.
      2. ONP Rangers stationed in Quinault: Rodger Blain, Lynn Dwann, Dan Ferrell, Hazel Gilley, George Leite, Hannah Merril, Carl Pengrantz, Liz Tuttle, and others. More Rangers will be easy to identify by referencing the Ranger Logbooks housed in the ONP Archives.
      3. Tom Criswell's family. Little information has been discovered about the carpenters/builders who worked on the Enchanted Valley Chalet.
      4. Roy Streator's family. Little information has been discovered about the carpenters/builders who worked on the Enchanted Valley Chalet.
      5. John Olson interviews. As part of this documentation project Charlotte Helmer recorded an extensive oral history interview with John. Some of his comments should be verified and added to any future history of the building. In particular, he talked about Representative Russell Mack and negotiations for NPS to purchase the Chalet.
    2. Museums and Archives
      1. National Archives. College Park, M.D. Record Group 79 (NPS Records) includes 900 files pertaining to the Olympic Recreation Company and the Olympic Chalet Company in boxes 1515-1520. Also there are NPS concessions contracts and permits in boxes 894- 896. Record Group 79 (USFS Records) contains some files pertaining to the Olympic Recreation Company and the Olympic Chalet Company. USFS Forest Service records may include files pertaining to the Olympic Recreation Company's bid for the Enchanted Valley Recreation Unit, including original drawings.
      2. Washington State Archives. Olympia, WA. USFS Forest Service records may include files pertaining to the Olympic Recreation Company's bid for the Enchanted Valley Recreation Unit, including original drawings. The Asahel Curtis Collection also has primary documents pertaining to the Chalet.
      3. Congressional Records. This research project did not include an in depth search for congressional records relating to negotiations between NPS and the Olympic Recreation Company.
      4. US Military Records. This research project did not include an in depth search for records relating to AWS activity at the Enchanted Valley Chalet.
      5. The Polson Museum. Hoquiam, WA. The director of the Polson Museum, John Larson, has confirmed that the museum has collections pertaining to The Olympians. The club historian, Al Gregory, has said that the Olympian's collection of documents, awards, memorabilia, etc. will most likely be deposited with the Polson Museum sometime in the future. For now, those collections are housed with the club historian.
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121 Gregory, Al. Oral History Interview. 2014. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection.
122 Olson, John. Oral History interview. 2014. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection.
123 Gregory, Al. Oral History Interview. 2014. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection.
124 Olson, John. Oral History interview. 2014. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection.
125 Unknown. "Enchanted Valley Chalet to be Renovated." The News Tribune. 4 July 1982. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Files (unprocessed collection). Folder "Enchanted Valley Chalet."
126 ONP. 'End-Of-Year-Report 1983." ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
127 The Olympians. "For Enchanted Valley Chalet Donation of Materials and Services." c. 1983. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
128 Stone, Richard. Message to Don Jackson, Olympic National Park. 20 August 1982. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
129 Comp, Allan. Message to Dorothy Estergreen and Anne Moisanen, the Olympians. 12 May 1982. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
130 Cantor, Roger. Message to Richard Stone, the Olympians. 26 October 1982. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
131 Cantor, Roger. Message to Richard Stone, the Olympians. 26 October 1982. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
132 Lewis, Earl. A "Survey Inventory Form for Enchanted Valley Chalet." Prepared for NPS Pacific Northwest Region Cultural Resources Division. Survey by the Olympians, Inc of Hoquiam. ca. 1980s. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Files (unprocessed collection). Folder "Enchanted Valley Chalet."
133 ONP. 'End-Of-Year-Report 1983." ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
134 Beorse, Bryn. "Some Enchanted History." The Daily World, Aberdeen, WA. 9 October 1983. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
135 The Olympians. "For Enchanted Valley Chalet Donation of Materials and Services." c. 1983. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Files (unprocessed collection). Folder "Enchanted Valley Chalet."
136 Beorse, Bryn. "An Olympian Task." The Daily World, Aberdeen, WA. 4 August 1985. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Files (unprocessed collection). Folder "Enchanted Valley Chalet."
137 Reagan, Ronald. Message to The Olympians Incorporated. 27 March 1984. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Files (unprocessed collection). Folder "Enchanted Valley Chalet."
138 The Olympians. "Flash! Flash! Flash! Flash! Flash!" 1984. Memo. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Files (unprocessed collection). Folder "Enchanted Valley Chalet."
139 Blair, Pam. "'Citizen of the Year' named in Monte." 12 June 1988. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Files (unprocessed collection). Folder "Enchanted Valley Chalet."
140 Evans, Gail H. E. "Historic Resource Study of Olympic National Park." Page 304. NPS Pacific Northwest Region Cultural Resources Division. 1983. ONP Archives.
141 Evans, Gail H. E. "Historic Resource Study of Olympic National Park." Page 304. NPS Pacific Northwest Region Cultural Resources Division. 1983. ONP Archives.
142 Peting, Donald. "Historic Structures Preservation Guide, Part A." 17 July 1985. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
143 Peting, Donald. "Historic Structures Preservation Guide, Part B." 17 July 1985. Page 4. ONP Archives. "Paul Gleeson's Notebook on Enchanted Valley Chalet."
144 ONP. "Draft Environmental Assessment for the Management of the Enchanted Valley Chalet." July 2006. Page 10. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection. Originally located at http://parkplanning.nps.gov/ Retrieved 7 August 2014.
145 Blain, Rodger J. "Enchanted Valley Cooking Facilities." Message to Paul Gleeson, Ellen Gage, Dan Pontbriand, and Gretchen Luxenberg. 17 August 1994. Email. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Files (unprocessed collection). Folder "Enchanted Valley Chalet."
146 Blain, Rodger J. "Enchanted Valley Cooking Facilities." Message to Paul Gleeson, Ellen Gage, Dan Pontbriand, and Gretchen Luxenberg. 17 August 1994. Email. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Files (unprocessed collection). Folder "Enchanted Valley Chalet."
147 Pontbriand, Daniel. " Enchanted Valley Chalet Project." Message to Dave Conca, Ellen Gage, Paul Gleeson, Kris Kincade, and Roger J. Blain. 3 August 95. Email. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Files (unprocessed collection). Folder "Enchanted Valley Chalet."
148 Conca, Dave. "Archeological Site Inventory Form" 18 September 02. Olympic National Park Archeological Site Records. Smithsonian Number: 45-JE-367.
149 ONP. "Emergency Action to Temporarily Relocate the Enchanted Valley Chalet for the Protection of the East Fork Quinault River: Environmental Assessment." May 2014. Page 27. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection. Originally located at www.parkplanning.nps.gov. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
150 van der Zweep, Rick. "Washington State October 2003 Flood Report." Northwest River Forecast Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2003. www.nwrfc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
151 United States Geological Survey. "USGS 12039500 Quinault River at Quinault Lake, WA. Oct 01- Nov 01." 2003. ONP Archives. "Paul Gleeson's Notebook on Enchanted Valley Chalet."
152 Hose. William L. "Trip Report- May 24-28, 2004." Message to Superintendent of Historic Preservation Training Center. 8 June 2004. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection. Originally located in Paul Gleeson Collection. "Notebook on Enchanted Valley Chalet."
153 ONP. "Historic Enchanted Valley Chalet Threatened by Changing River Channel; Park Seeks Public Input Regarding Possible Protection Measures." 2 June 2004. Press release. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection. Originally located at http://parkplanning.nps.gov. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
154 ONP. "Interdisciplinary Planning Team. Meeting Minutes." 8 June 2004. Section V: "Other Project Updates." ONP Archives. Paul Gleeson Collection. "Notebook on Enchanted Valley Chalet."
155 ONP. "EV Maintenance EIS. Section 2.1.6: Actions Common to All Action Alternatives." ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection. Originally located in Paul Gleeson Collection. "Notebook on Enchanted Valley Chalet."
156 ONP. "Park Staff Taking Emergency Steps to Protect Historic Enchanted Valley Chalet; Seeks Public Input in Developing Long-Term Strategy." 4 February 2005. Press release. HABS files. Originally located at http://parkplanning.nps.gov. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
157 ONP. "Park Staff Taking Emergency Steps to Protect Historic Enchanted Valley Chalet; Seeks Public Input in Developing Long-Term Strategy." 4 February 2005. Press release. HABS files. Originally located at http://parkplanning.nps.gov. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
158 Gleeson, Paul. "Enchanted Valley Timeline." August 2014. Timeline and accompanying photographs. ONP Archives. Paul Gleeson Collection. "Notebook on Enchanted Valley Chalet."
159 Kennard, Paul. "Enchanted Valley Chalet- Conditions and Options." 29 June, 2005. Memo. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection. Originally located in Paul Gleeson Collection. "Notebook on Enchanted Valley Chalet."
160 Gleeson, Paul. "Enchanted Valley Field Trip-6/20/05." 20 June 2005. Trip planning notes. ONP Archives. Paul Gleeson Collection. "Notebook on Enchanted Valley Chalet."
161 Kennard, Paul. "Enchanted Valley Chalet- Conditions and Options." 29 June, 2005. Memo. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection. Originally located in Paul Gleeson Collection. "Notebook on Enchanted Valley Chalet."
162 ONP. "Enchanted Valley IPT Meeting." 26 July 2005. Meeting minutes. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection. Originally located in Paul Gleeson Collection. "Notebook on Enchanted Valley Chalet."
163 ONP. "Enchanted Valley IPT Meeting." 26 July 2005. Meeting minutes. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection. Originally located in Paul Gleeson Collection. "Notebook on Enchanted Valley Chalet."
164 ONP. "Emergency Action to Temporarily Relocate the Enchanted Valley Chalet for the Protection of the East Fork Quinault River: Environmental Assessment." May 2014. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection. Originally located at www.parkplanning.nps.gov. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
165 Laitner, William G. "Enchanted Valley Chalet, Short Term Emergency Stabilization Action Plan Review and Approval." Memorandum to Paul Gleeson. 1 September 2005. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection. Originally located in Paul Gleeson Collection. "Notebook on Enchanted Valley Chalet."
166 Laitner, William G. "Enchanted Valley Chalet, Short Term Emergency Stabilization Action Plan Review and Approval." Memorandum to Paul Gleeson. 1 September 2005. ONP Archives. "Paul Gleeson's Notebook on Enchanted Valley Chalet."
167 Gleeson, Paul. "PG notes post 9/24/05." 24 September 2005. Notes about actions taken on 21-24 September 2005. ONP Archives. "Paul Gleeson's Notebook on Enchanted Valley Chalet."
168 ONP. "Draft Environmental Assessment for the Management of the Enchanted Valley Chalet." July 2006. Page 6. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection. Originally located at http://parkplanning.nps.gov/ Retrieved 7 August 2014.
169 ONP. "Draft Environmental Assessment for the Management of the Enchanted Valley Chalet." July 2006. Page 7. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection. Originally located at http://parkplanning.nps.gov/ Retrieved 7 August 2014.
170 Vail, Ernie. Oral History Interview. 2014. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection.
171 ONP."National Register of Historic Places Registration Form." October 1990. ONP Archives. Paul Gleeson Collection. "Notebook on Enchanted Valley Chalet."
172 ONP. "Final General Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement." 2008. Volume 1. Page 148. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection. Originally located in ONP active files, I:\All\Planning and Compliance\FGMP. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
173 ONP. "Final General Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement." 2008. Volume 2. Appendices E and F. Page 452-457. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection. Originally located in ONP active files, I:\All\Planning and Compliance\FGMP. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
174 ONP. "Final General Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement." 2008. Volume 2. Page 452-457. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection. Originally located in ONP active files, I:\All\Planning and Compliance\FGMP. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
175 ONP. "Final General Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement." 2008. Volume 1. Page 35. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection. Originally located in ONP active files, I:\All\Planning and Compliance\FGMP. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
176 ONP. "Final General Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement." 2008. Volume 1. Page 149. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection. Originally located in ONP active files, I:\All\Planning and Compliance\FGMP. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
177 ONP. "Final General Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement." 2008. Volume 2. Page 49. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection. Originally located in ONP active files, I:\All\Planning and Compliance\FGMP. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
178 Houk, Donald "Duck" and Lea Over. "Enchanted Valley Chalet 2010 Condition Assessment." 2010. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection. Originally located in ONP active files, I:\Backcountry Carp\Enchanted Valley\Enchanted Valley CA.indd. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
179 Jorgensen, Barbara and Kathleen "Olson" Graeber. Message to the National Park Service. 8 December 2009. Letter. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Files (unprocessed collection). Folder "Enchanted Valley Chalet."
180 Gleeson, Paul. Conversation with Charlotte Helmer. 26 August 2014.
181 Houk, Donald "Duck." Re: Enchanted Valley Chalet History." Message to Charlotte Helmer. 5 August 2014. DOI Email.
182 See Appendix B: Historic Photographs.
183 ONP. "Enchanted Valley Ranger Logbooks." 1970s. ONP Archives. Acc No. OLYM-742. Cat No. 30455 and 30456.
184 ONP. "Emergency Action to Temporarily Relocate the Enchanted Valley Chalet for the Protection of the East Fork Quinault River: Environmental Assessment." May 2014. Page 28. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection. Originally located at www.parkplanning.nps.gov. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
185 ONP. "Emergency Action to Temporarily Relocate the Enchanted Valley Chalet for the Protection of the East Fork Quinault River: Environmental Assessment." May 2014. Page 16. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection. Originally located at www.parkplanning.nps.gov. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
186 Benson, Jason. "FY14 Project Planning." 18 November 2013. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection. Originally located in ONP active files, I:\Backcountry Carp\Enchanted Valley\"Chalet FY14 Planning."
187 Myers, Lana. Photographs. 4 January 2014. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection. Originally located in ONP active files, I:\All\Enchanted Valley\"Enchanted Valley_Lana Myers 1-4-14."
188 Creachbaum, Sarah. Message to Allyson Brooks, State Historic Preservation Office. 17 January 2014. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection. Originally located at http://www.parkplanning.nps.gov. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
189 ONP. "Historic Enchanted Valley Chalet Threatened by Changing River Channel; Park Seeks Public Input Regarding Possible Protection Measures." 2 June 2004. Press release. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection. Originally located at http://parkplanning.nps.gov. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
190 Creachbaum, Sarah. Message to Allyson Brooks, State Historic Preservation Office. 17 January 2014. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection. Originally located at http://www.parkplanning.nps.gov. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
191 ONP. "Emergency Action to Temporarily Relocate the Enchanted Valley Chalet for the Protection of the East Fork Quinault River: Environmental Assessment." May 2014. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection. Originally located at www.parkplanning.nps.gov. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
192 NPS. Photographs. 24 January 2014. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection. Originally located in ONP active files, I:\All\Enchanted Valley\Enchanted Valley_Sanny Lustig 01-24-14
193 NPS. Photographs. 8 March 2014. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection. Originally located in ONP active files, I:\All\Enchanted Valley\"chalet 3-8-2014."
194 ONP. "Dynamic Quinault River Continues to Shift Course, Threaten Historic Enchanted Valley Chalet" 20 March 2014. Press release. http://www.nps.gov/olym/parknews/newsreleases.htm. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
195 The Washington Trust for Historic Preservation. http://preservewa.org/Enchanted-Valley-Chalet.aspx. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
196 ONP. "Public Invited to Review and Comment on Plan to Temporarily Relocate the Enchanted Valley Chalet; Long- term Options to be Examined in Second, Follow-up Analysis." 21 May 2014. Press release. http://www.nps.gov/olym/parknews/newsreleases.htm. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
197 ONP. "Emergency Action to Temporarily Relocate the Enchanted Valley Chalet for the Protection of the East Fork Quinault River: Environmental Assessment." May 2014. Page 12. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection. Originally located at www.parkplanning.nps.gov. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
198 ONP. "Emergency Action to Temporarily Relocate the Enchanted Valley Chalet for the Protection of the East Fork Quinault River: Environmental Assessment." May 2014. Page 26. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection. Originally located at www.parkplanning.nps.gov. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
199 ONP. "Emergency Action to Temporarily Relocate the Enchanted Valley Chalet for the Protection of the East Fork Quinault River: Environmental Assessment." May 2014. Page 29. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection. Originally located at www.parkplanning.nps.gov. Retrieved 5 August 2014..
200 NPS. "Full Correspondence." 2014. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection. Originally located http://www.parkplanning.nps.gov. Accessed 5 August 2014.
201 NPS. "Determination of No Impairment." July 2014. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection. Originally located http://www.parkplanning.nps.gov. Accessed 5 August 2014.
202 NPS. "Finding Of No Significant Impact." July 2014. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection. Originally located at http://www.parkplanning.nps.gov. Accessed 5 August 2014.
203 ONP."National Register of Historic Places Registration Form." October 1990. Page 26. ONP Archives. Paul Gleeson Collection. "Notebook on Enchanted Valley Chalet."
204 ONP."National Register of Historic Places Registration Form." October 1990. Page 17. ONP Archives. Paul Gleeson Collection. "Notebook on Enchanted Valley Chalet."
205 ONP."National Register of Historic Places Registration Form." October 1990. Page 11. ONP Archives. Paul Gleeson Collection. "Notebook on Enchanted Valley Chalet."
206 Evans, Gail H. E. "Historic Resource Study of Olympic National Park." NPS Pacific Northwest Region Cultural Resources Division. 1983. Page 18. ONP Archives.
207 ONP."National Register of Historic Places Registration Form." October 1990. Page 11. ONP Archives. Paul Gleeson Collection. "Notebook on Enchanted Valley Chalet."
208 Evans, Gail H. E. "Historic Resource Study of Olympic National Park." NPS Pacific Northwest Region Cultural Resources Division. 1983. Page 18. ONP Archives.
209 ONP. "Emergency Action to Temporarily Relocate the Enchanted Valley Chalet for the Protection of the East Fork Quinault River: Environmental Assessment." May 2014. Page 14. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection. Originally located at www.parkplanning.nps.gov. Retrieved 5 August 2014.


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