HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY
ENCHANTED VALLEY CHALET
(DRAFT #6. September 2014)
PART 1


Location:
The Enchanted Valley Chalet is located within Olympic National Park in Jefferson County, Washington. It is in the East Fork Quinault River Valley, about 13 miles hike from the Graves Creek trailhead at the end of South Shore Road. The estimated coordinate at the structure's south corner is 4740'16"N, 12323'21"W. This coordinate was obtained on July 28, 2014 using Google Maps. The satellite image appears to be from summer, 2013 judging by the distance between the Chalet and riverbank. 1 There are no restrictions on releasing this location. The Chalet will have been temporarily relocated 50-100 feet northeast by mid-September, 2014.
Present Owner:
Olympic National Park, National Park Service, Department of the Interior. 600 East Park Avenue, Port Angeles, WA 98362.
Present Use:
This structure most recently served as backcountry ranger station and emergency shelter for Olympic National Park, but it is presently closed.
Significance:
The Enchanted Valley Chalet is historically significant as an example of rustic architecture and recreational development in the western United States. Today it is the largest log structure in the Olympic Mountains and is the only surviving example of backcountry commercial developments within the park. It is significant to the local communities in Quinault and the Grays Harbor area because of its historical association with longtime residents such as the Olson family and members of The Olympians hiking club. Architecturally, the building retains a high degree of integrity in its remote location, setting, vernacular design, materials, fine craftsmanship, and feeling. Furthermore, the Chalet is a valuable illustration of how people impacted the Olympics throughout the nineteenth century, including exploration, settlement, resource exploitation, recreational development, national defense, and wilderness stewardship.
Historians:
Charlotte Helmer, Engineering Technician (Architecture) at Olympic National Park. This report was completed in September, 2014.
Project Information:
Project Information: This project was supervised by Ellen Gage, Historic Architect at Olympic Nation Park [ONP]. Research and writing was completed during the summer of 2014 and headquartered at ONP. Editing was done by Ellen Gage; Dave Conca, Cultural Resources Program Manager; and Paul Gleeson, former Chief of Cultural Resources. Additional guidance came from Christine Avery, Historian for the National Park System [NPS] and regional HABS/HAER reviewer.

Historical report: ONP staff members who contributed to the archival, bibliographic, and primary research for this project are Gay Hunter, Curator; Jacilee Wray, Anthropologist; Larry Lack, Trail Supervisor; Jason Benson, Backcountry Carpenter; and Jonathan Schmitz and Daniel Leckie, both interns to the Historic Architect. The historian also consulted John Olson, son of Ignar and Jessie Olson; Ernie Vail, former ONP Trails Supervisor; Al Gregory, Historian of the Olympians; Duck Houk, former ONP Backcountry Carpenter; Daniel Pontbriand, former ONP Ranger; and Paul Gleeson, former Chief of Cultural Resources.

Photographs: Lani Doely, an independent photographer, took HABS standard photographs of the Chalet in May, 2014. She was assisted by Terry Doely, Jonathan Schmitz, and Charlotte Helmer.

Drawings: Charlotte Helmer prepared elevations, plans, and a section drawing based on photographs, two site visits, and previous drawings by The Olympians, Inc. and Leah Over. These drawings assist with documentation of the Chalet but are not intended to fully comply with HABS standards.

Part I. Historical Information
A. Physical History:

  1. Date of Erection: The Chalet was constructed during the summers of 1930 and 1931 and opened on August 6, 1931.

  2. Architect: The Olympic Recreation Company and The United States Forest Service

  3. Original and subsequent owners, uses:
    1. The Olympic Recreation Company was granted a special use permit by the US Forest Service in 1928. The company constructed the Enchanted Valley Chalet on Lot 1 of the Enchanted Valley Recreation Unit in Mount Olympus National Monument in 1930 and 1931. It opened for business on August 6, 1931 under management of Elvin Olson.
    2. The Olympic Recreation Company retained a special use permit and operated the Enchanted Valley Chalet as a backcountry resort for eleven years (1931-1942).
    3. Mount Olympus National Monument was transferred from the U.S. Forest Service to the National Park Service in 1933. At that time, Ignar and Jessie Olson replaced Elvin Olson as managers of the Enchanted Valley Chalet.
    4. Olympic National Park was established in 1938. It included all of Mount Olympus National Monument and Enchanted Valley.
    5. The Olympic Recreation Company was in negotiations to sell the Enchanted Valley Chalet to the NPS for twelve years (1939-1951).
    6. During World War II the Aircraft Warning Service stationed two plane spotters at the Chalet for roughly a year and a half (1943-1944).
    7. The U.S. Congress authorized NPS to purchase all the Olympic Recreation Company's holdings in 1944. Price negotiations continued for several years.
    8. After World War II Ignar and Jessie Olson used the Enchanted Valley Chalet without a special use permit for occasional trips over six years (1945-1950).
    9. The building was sold to the National Park Service in 1951.
    10. It was frequently used by hikers without formal management by ONP for three years (1951-1953).
    11. ONP staff reopened the Enchanted Valley Chalet for the public to use as a shelter in 1953. It served as a shelter for sixty years (1953-2013).
    12. The Enchanted Valley Chalet became a Backcountry Ranger Station when the first seasonal ranger was assigned to it in 1954. It served as a Ranger Station for fifty-nine years (1954-2013).
    13. The Enchanted Valley Chalet became undercut by the East Fork Quinault River and was closed in spring of 2014.

  4. Builder: Tom E. Criswell led the construction, assisted by his son Glenn Criswell in 1930. Roy Streator did most of the interior carpentry in 1931.

  5. Original plans and construction: The original plan of the Enchanted Valley Chalet was a rectangle approximately 28' x 42'. On the ground floor there were two rooms: a kitchen in the southeast corner, and a large combined lobby and dining room. The second story had seven sleeping rooms of various sizes all opening onto a central hallway. The third story attic had an open plan under the gable roof. These three levels were connected by a single staircase oriented perpendicular to the northeast exterior wall and ascending from the large main room beside the kitchen.

  6. Alterations and additions:
    1. In 1934 the Olympic Recreation Company converted the largest sleeping room into a bathroom. They ran pipes on the southwest wall exterior to the second level, raised the bathroom floor to accommodate plumbing, and installed a toilet and a claw-foot cast- iron bathtub.
    2. Sometime between 1949 and 1985 an interior wall and doorway was constructed next to the kitchen. The wall formed a small bedroom for the ONP rangers.
    3. In 1983 ONP and The Olympians restored the Enchanted Valley Chalet but changed several original features in the process. On the northwest wall several exterior wall logs were replaced with larger ones that now protrude on the interior. On the southwest wall several log sections were replaced and the floor joists were cut short. Also on the southwest wall there was a large rectangular hole where a fireplace originally was planned but never built-the boards filling it were replaced with non-original log sections. Below this gap in the wall logs there was originally a gap in the foundation; it was filled in. A new banister was constructed on the second flight of stairs.
    4. Shortly before 1985 ONP constructed an interior wall around the staircase on the first floor. The wall changed the boundary between the ranger room and emergency shelter functions by limiting public access to one large room on the ground floor and making the upstairs accessible from the ranger rooms.
    5. In 1959 ONP and Student Conservation Association removed the inoperable second floor bathroom. The raised floor and toilet were taken out but the bathtub remained.
    6. In 1995 ONP removed the staircase walls and built two plywood walls to enclose a small room on the north corner of the building. These walls changed the boundary between the ranger room and emergency shelter functions by limiting public access to one small room.
    7. In 2010 ONP installed a metal door connecting the emergency shelter and ranger rooms, constructed a small privacy partition to make a small room in the west corner of the building, and reconstructed the porch. Up until this time the porch was rebuilt and redesigned many times, but the 2010 preservation effort was intended to restore it to its original configuration.
    8. In March, 2014 ONP removed the windows.
    9. In September, 2014 ONP will lift the building off its foundation and move it 50-100 feet northeast from its original location.

B. Historical Context:

Introduction

In 2014 the Enchanted Valley Chalet looks much as it did when it first opened as a backcountry hotel 1930; however the landscape around it has changed. There is one trail through Enchanted Valley that follows the East Fork of the Quinault River through forests and over creeks- and which has roughly followed the same route since the earliest written records of this place. When first built, the Chalet shared a large meadow with outbuildings and seasonal tent camps. Local Quinault residents guided riding parties and pack strings through the valley. Today the river has changed course and undercuts the Chalet's southwest wall by roughly eight feet, the building is unoccupied, and the surrounding meadow is often busy with backpackers' camps and day hikers passing through. Because Enchanted Valley is otherwise a natural landscape, the Chalet is both an oddity and an iconic destination. The building has made the valley and connected regions accessible to generations of curious visitors. This site and building are remarkably connected- each gives the other greater significance.

1890s/Explorers

The earliest reports of Enchanted Valley were written by Joseph P. O'Neil during a trans-Olympic expedition in 1890. O'Neil was a U.S. Army Second Lieutenant who became fascinated by the Olympics while he was stationed at Port Townsend. On his first trip into the Olympics, O'Neil began at Port Angeles and led his party south to explore what is now the Hurricane Ridge and Heart O' the Hills sub-districts of Olympic National Park. Five years later, he was ready to undertake a more ambitious route. The 1890 expedition was funded by the U.S. Army and the Oregon Alpine Club. O'Neil was chosen to lead a party across the Olympics starting on the east side and emerging on the west. The group began at Lake Cushman and proceeded up the North Fork of the Skokomish River to the East Fork of the Quinault River, then followed the Quinault through Enchanted Valley, Graves Creek, and the Quinault Valley to emerge at Hoquiam. 2 According to Quinault Ranger Raymond Geerdes, the town of Hoquiam constructed a wagon road to Humptulips in order to meet the party when they arrived at Lake Quinault. 3 These events are significant in that the wagon road and trail continued to be used by settlers, the U.S. Forest Service, Chalet guests, and now visitors to Olympic National Park.

1890s/Olson Family

The Enchanted Valley Chalet has a significant connection to the Olsons, a pioneer family that settled, explored, and developed the Quinault Valley. Five Olson brothers were members of the Olympic Recreation Company and built the Chalet: Herbert (b.1884), Richard (b.1887), Ignar (b.1890), Teander (b.1897), and Elvin Olson (b.1899). These men came from a family of successful pioneers and knew how to thrive in the remote Olympic Mountains.

Their father, John August Olson transferred his homesteading rights from Minnesota to obtain 160 acres in the Quinault Valley and settled there in 1892. Their mother, Bothilda Olson followed the new wagon road and pack trail left by O'Neil's party when she brought the children to the homestead in 1894. There were seven sons and ten daughters in the family. The family worked hard to survive and be self-sufficient in the Olympic Mountains. Richard Olson later said that in the first year they "would have starved to death without the garden." 4 The family grew vegetables and fruit, raised cattle, grew and milled grains, hunted elk and deer, and traded with the Quinault Indians for blueback salmon. 5 For additional income they captured wild elk and established a heard of hand- reared tame elk at the homestead. The homestead was 26 miles away from any road and eight miles from the closest settlement.

The brothers learned from many backcountry explorations and mishaps, beginning when they were very young. When the family settled in the Olympics Herbert Olson was ten, Richard was seven, and Ignar was only four years old. According to an interview with Ignar Olson's son John, Ignar spent his first night alone in the wilderness when he was eight years old. On this occasion, Ignar and his father were in Fletcher Canyon when they found two elk calves. Since Ignar was too small to help carry the animals, John Olson carried one out that night and left his son to watch over the second elk until morning. When John retuned and asked the boy if he had been scared, Ignar lied and said no. His father replied, "See there is nothing to hurt you in these woods if you are prepared to handle it." 6 The Olson brothers grew up wrangling elk; breaking horses; hunting cougar, elk, deer, and bear; fishing; trapping mink, martin, and fisher; camping; packing; and exploring the Olympics. When they later formed Olson Bros. and the Olympic Recreation Company, they were advertised as "men who have made the Olympic Mountains their lifelong home." 7

1910s/Olympic National Forest

The Olson brothers and the Olympic National Forest grew up side by side. In 1896 the Senate Committee of Forest Preservation and Protection of Game reviewed Lt. Joseph O'Neil's report on the Olympic Mountains. In his report, O'Neil described the character of this undeveloped wilderness and concluded that the mountains were "absolutely unfit for any use except, perhaps, a national park, where elk and deer could be saved." 8 One year later his vision began to take shape- President Grover Cleveland set aside 2.2 million acres on the Olympic Peninsula by executive order in February, 1897. The Olympic Forest Reserve was formally established on March 1, 1898. In short order, President William McKinley reduced the acreage twice, until finally settling on just over one million acres in 1901. 9 All Forest Reserves were renamed National Forests in 1907.

Meanwhile, Quinault residents continued to explore, hunt, and trap in the park. Hunting parties led by professional hunters roamed the Olympics, and elk in particular were killed for their teeth. Over time, the Olson brothers explored the Quinault Valley, the North Fork Quinault, and the East Fork, including Enchanted Valley. At this time, Enchanted Valley was known as the Valley of a Thousand Waterfalls. In 1899 Herbert and Ignar hiked up Howe Creek, the Wynoochee River, Duckabush- Skokomish Divide, and down to upper O'Neil Creek. In 1903 Ignar and two brothers traveled thirty-eight miles through rainforests to reach Enchanted Valley and left their names carved into a tree, about four miles south of where they would later build the Chalet. 10

Eventually the elk population was hunted to the edge of oblivion. Washington Representative Francis W. Cushman proposed a bill in the House of Representatives to establish the Olympic area as "Elk National Park;" however, this bill was not ratified. In 1905 the U.S. Forest Service banned elk hunting within the Olympic National Forest. It would remain closed until 1933. Meanwhile, the Olson brothers turned their wilderness skills and knowledge of the Quinault Valley into a marketable service. They worked as packers and guides for visiting groups. Although there were no more elk hunting parties, the Quinault Valley was still a popular destination for fishing parties, climbers, hikers, photographers, etc. In 1906, Ignar guided a group along the East Fork of the Quinault River and the party assigned names to several creeks along the way, including Ignar Creek. Three years later, Herbert led a group up the old O'Neil pass trail to Hart Lake and returned through Enchanted Valley. 11

Ignar, Teander, and possibly Fritz Olson built a trap shack in Enchanted Valley sometime between 1910 and 1915. 12 It is the earliest known building in the valley. According to John Olson, when it was first built the brothers would "go up in the wintertime and trap there all winter and then come out in the spring." After they married and had families, the brothers would go up for a month at a time. Like many other Quinault residents, the money they made from trapping martin and fisher was a vital source of income to get them through the winter. Martins brought in four or five dollars each. In later years, the Olson trap shack was part of operations at the Chalet.

1920s/Recreational Development

Under management by the U.S. Forest Service, the Quinault Valley and Enchanted Valley were soon developed to serve the Forest Service's emphasis on fire prevention. Central to this aim was a system of roads and trails that gave forest rangers access to all parts of the Olympic interior. The agency maintained trails from Lake Quinault to Enchanted Valley and constructed a building in the in the vicinity of the Olson trap shack and very near the future site of the Enchanted Valley Chalet. 13

The shelter at Enchanted Valley was built sometime around 1925. According to Elvin Olson it was "a little log house," roughly twelve feet by fourteen feet, and built by one of the Olson brothers who was in charge of trail work for the Forest Service. Most of their shelters were three-sided but this one was four-sided and is alternatively called a patrol cabin. The Forest Service used it regularly but left it unlocked so it could serve the same purpose as the other shelters. It had several rough bunks. In the 1930s the cabin sat within 100 feet of the Chalet, closer to the river. 14

Secondary to forest protection, the Forest Service also accommodated recreation activities within its boundaries. Local residents continued to freely fish, camp in undesignated sites, and hike on Forest Service trails. This unofficial use was well understood and gradually became a vital part of the Forest Service's management plans for Olympic. Recreational developments on the Olympic Peninsula were enabled by the Mineral Springs Act in 1899 (which allowed construction of public resorts at Sol Duck and Olympic Hot Springs), 1902 regulations (for camping and day use), 1905 regulations (allowing permits for hotels, sanitariums, and summer cabins), and the 1909 establishment of Mount Olympus National Monument at the heart of the Olympic National Forest. Lastly, the formation of the National Park Service in 1916, with its emphasis on outdoor recreation, further fueled the Forest Service's interest in recreation developments throughout the 1920s and 30s. 15

During the late 1920s and early 1930s, recreational development of Olympic National Forest was led by the H.L. Plumb, Olympic National Forest Supervisor (1926-1935) and Fred W. Cleator, Forest Service Recreation Engineer (1919-??). By 1930 there were 300 miles of trails throughout the park and another 700 miles were planned. At various times the Forest Service pursued various plans to make the inner mountains accessible by road; these included a road from the Sol Duc River to Seven Lakes Basin, another from Sol Duc to the Olympic Hot Springs area, a road to the Elwha River Basin, and a road up the East Fork Quinault River to Dosewallips. 16

Cleator was trained as a forester before he became recreation examiner for the North Pacific District, and his work endeavored to promote visitor use while maintained healthy forests. In particular, he wanted to preserve the wilderness character of the Olympic interior. The concept of "primeval," "untrammeled," or "pristine" wilderness emerged in the early twentieth century and was gaining momentum during the 1920s. 17 The plans he helped develop during the 1920s meant that the North Pacific District was ready to take full advantage when funding became available in the 1930s.

Simultaneously, private companies in the Grays Harbor communities examined the potential for backcountry tourism in the Olympics. For instance, the Hoquiam Chamber of Commerce sponsored a Chalet Committee to investigate the idea of building simple accommodations form hikers and horseback riders throughout the Olympic Mountains. In 1925 the committee made a five- day reconnaissance trip along the North Fork Quinault River (their report states that they did not have time to ride "the new trail" up the East Fork). They recommended that private companies accommodate average visitors by offering guides and various shelters at regular intervals, including a medium-sized Chalet at Low Divide, and a Chalet or shelter at the Graves Creek trailhead. 18 Furthermore, this interest in opening the backcountry to tourists led to the formation of the Olympic Development League, an association of commercial organizations from Aberdeen, Olympia, Port Angeles, Port Townsend, and Shelton. 19

1920s/Planning

In the mid-1920s the Olsons wanted to expand their guide business. Several of the brothers led by Elvin Olson, applied to the US Forest Service for a special use permit to develop the North Fork of the Quinault River. 20 It is likely that they became incorporated as Olson Bros., Inc. in 1926 so that they could apply for the permit; however, it was granted to the Olympic Chalet Company of Hoquiam instead. That summer, the Olympic Chalet Company broke ground on a Chalet at Low Divide. When the U.S. Forest Service turned down the application from Elvin Olson, they informally discussed the possibility that soon there would be another area open for recreational development-the East Fork Quinault. 21

While the U.S. Forest Service turned its attention to tourism projects on the North Fork, the Olson Bros. took action to make their next application stronger than the first. They made more reconnaissance trips along the East Fork and actually decided that it had more potential than the North Fork. 22 They established trails along the Quinault River, including Pony Bridge, and housed guests in their trap shelter in Enchanted Valley. In a letter to Forest Supervisor H.L. Plumb on January 13, 1927 Elvin Olson outlined the company's plans. 23 He wrote:

"We hereby make definite application for three tracts of land to be developed for resort purposes, one to be located near the head of East Fork of Quinault River, one at fork of Graves Creek and East Fork of Quinault River, and the other at Lake Sundown. We desire to run pack outfits, furnishing saddle horses, and guiding tourists, using the above points as basis."

Although the plans laid out in this document did not immediately produce a permit from the forest service, and parts of the scheme never came about, the letter is significant in that it include the earliest suggestion of a Chalet in Enchanted Valley. At Graves Creek they planned to receive clients and offer accommodations at "a log cabin of sufficient size." At the East Fork site (approximately the location of the Enchanted Valley Chalet) the company intended to build "developments similar to Graves Creek" which would be one of the "main stops on route across the Olympics by way of East Fork and Dosewallips rivers." The Forest Service did not offer permits at this time.

In the meantime, Olson Bros. continued to conduct guided tours in the region. An advertisement ran in The Daily Washingtonian on June 30, 1927:

"ENJOY THE OLYMPICS at Camp South Fork with Olson Bros., Olympic Guides. OPEN JULY 3. Rates $4.50 a day at camp, everything furnished. Saddlehorses $3 a day. Special trips 3 to 5 persons, $6 a day each; 6 to 9 persons, $5 a day each; 10 or more, $4 a day. Includes food, all camp equipment but blankets, and transportation for 35 pounds of baggage. Fifteen cents per pound for extra baggage. Trips to all parts of the Olympics" 24

The following day, Elvin Olson wrote to the U.S. Forest Service at the Portland, OR office. With this letter he reopened discussions about the East Fork described the company's preparations:

"Dear Sirs: [...] We have been in the packing business since long before there were even any Forest Service trails built at all, and we have been to the heads of all these rivers with horses in those days when we had to make our own trails and have followed it right thru the pioneering stage and I believe we should be given a fair trial to prove what we can do and to reap some of the benefit of our time and troubles. We have fifteen first class horses on hand now and fell equipments which will be practically useless to us if we are turned down on our East Fork applications. We have had an application in on these sites ever since early last summer but have not yet gotten any real action. We are anxious to start work this spring and be ready for this year's tourist season and we are ready to start construction soon as permit is granted." 25

In summer of 1927 planning for the Enchanted Valley Chalet began in earnest. A surveying party consisting of Plumb; Cleator; Elvin Olson representing Olson Bros, Inc.; and W.C. Mumaw representative of both the Olympic Development League and the Olympic Chalet Company made a trip along the East Fork Quinault River to identify potential development sites. Plumb and Cleator were in the process of investigating the entire forest for recreational purposes and development plans.

This was Cleator's first visit to the valley, and he was impressed. In his trip report, Cleator described the dramatic landscape:

At about the 21 mile post on the East Fork Quinault the trail suddenly breaks from continuous timber to a great open park extending along both sides of the river, flanked by rock walls but particularly on the north side by miles of imposing precipices, and rugged escarpments. Hundreds of small waterfalls in moister season, shoot, trickle, cascade, or otherwise pour over these cliffs into a scenic masterpiece. At a very rough estimate, some of the falls cascade down 1500 to 2000 feet, all in full sight of the observer. In dry season these give way to perhaps 20 to 30 small streams, still alive with spectacular cascades and falls. This, together with the wonderful background of snow peaks and glaciers, and immediate foreground of open, elk-trimmed, grass-floored, hardwood parks, makes a most wonderfully attractive scenic playground. 26


At some point during the trip Cleator suggested changing the name "Valley of a Thousand Waterfalls" to Enchanted Valley, and the rest of the party agreed. 27 He spent most of August and early September doing field research for a comprehensive plan. Judging by how detailed the plan was, he visited a large part of the forest in person and heard first person accounts of the remaining areas.

In 1929 Cleator completed his Recreation Atlas and accompanying map, a management plan for recreation in the Olympic National Forest and Mount Olympus National Monument. Better known as the Cleator Plan, this was significant in that it allowed for development projects such as the Enchanted Valley Chalet.

The Cleator plan established thirteen geographic units within Olympic National Forest for limited recreation use. The Olympic interior was divided into two districts. One was the "Olympic Primitive Area;" Cleator planned for this district to meet wilderness standards of the time, meaning that it would have minimal trails and no buildings other than rough shelters or necessary fire lookouts. 28 At that time the definition of wilderness considered emergency shelters to be necessary, as did Cleator who wrote that the Olympic wilderness should "not be left to itself as a menace to the storm-ridden traveler and a graveyard for the inexperienced." 29 Adjacent to the Primitive Area was the 316,960 acre "Mount Olympus Snow Peaks Recreation Area" which included the East Fork Quinault Valley. Within this area, the Forest Service was able to grant special use permits to private development companies, such as the Olympic Chalet Company and Olson Bros., Inc. 30

The U.S. Forest Service released its Prospectus for development of the East Fork on March 13, 1928. They offered two sites: one at Graves Creek, ten miles by road and then eight miles by trail above Lake Quinault; and another at Enchanted Valley, "on the headwaters of the East Fork Quinault River in the open park bottom lands adjacent to the river [..] approximately 21 miles by good horse trail from the end of the road near the forks of the Quinault River, or 31 miles in all from Quinault Lake." 31 Terms of the permit required the builders to expend, at minimum, $7,500 (later changed to $8,000) 32 in permanent improvements on the sites within three years. This included two buildings each with combined lobby and dining area, kitchen, and storeroom- at least 800 square feet in total. In order to be considered, applicants needed to submit architect's plans for a "harmonious design" in "rustic, Swiss Chalet," or "other suitable style." 33 The granted permit would be for a period of 10 years and cost the developer $50 per year beginning in 1928. The U.S. Forest service opened the biding period for this Prospectus on April 18, 1928. 34

Elvin Olson was certain that the Olson brothers "were to have the East Fork" 35 however, the Forest Service also considered a bid from the Olympic Chalet Company. The U.S. Forest Service planned to develop a trans-Olympic route along the East Fork and for that reason both Olson Bros. and the Olympic Chalet Company wanted to secure the bid. A major trans-Olympic route seemed guaranteed from the Prospectus, which stated that the Enchanted Valley site, ideally placed two days ride into the forest, was on "what will be the main horse trail between Quinault Lake and Hoods Canal." 36

The directors of the Olympic Chalet Company were already in business with the U.S. Forest Service, and furthermore, were well connected to organizations promoting development throughout the Olympic Peninsula. They served as leaders of the Grays Harbor Chamber of Commerce and the Olympic Development League. 37 Olson Bros., Inc. did not have any of these advantages, so they prepared for the bid by establishing a new company and seeking support from other local businesses in the Quinault area.

On April 9, 1928 the partners of Olson Bros. Inc. formed the Olympic Recreation Company. The new company consisted of five Olsons and two additional investors: Elvin Olson had twenty shares in the company, and Ignar Olson, Teander Olson, Richard Olson, Herbert Olson, M.H. Mulkey, and Charles Thomas each had ten shares. The investors paid $100 for each share of non-assessable common stock. At its establishment, the company's capital stock was to the sum of $15,000. 38 Likely this figure includes the value of additional assets such as the Olson Bros. stock animals, equipment, and skills. Evidently, the company was formed for the exact purpose of acquiring the East Fork permit. The founding members signed a subscription agreement stipulating that "in the event the permit from the Forest Service above mentioned shall not be issued to the said proposed corporation the agreement shall be null and void, otherwise to remain in full force and virtue." 39

The U.S. Forest Service's plans and selection process were of great interest throughout the region. On April 20, 1928, the Quinault Commercial Club wrote to Superintendent Plum describing their concerns: "It [is] quite plain that a movement is on foot to create a monopoly on development of the Olympics, either having the National Park Association take it over, or having the Forest Service change its policy regarding these concessions." 40 "Several influential citizens" 41 did not want the Olympic Chalet Company to be the only private recreation developer in the region, nor did they want one company to control both ends of the trans-Olympic trail. Furthermore, the Quinault Commercial Club explicitly told Plumb to choose the Olympic Recreation Company. They wrote: "Olson Bros. not only have the required financial backing to make good their proposal, but can secure more as the money is needed. They have also the full moral support of this community and of Grey's Harbor County, and the Harbor Cities to a great extent." 42

On May 3, 1928 Plumb wrote to the Forest Supervisor in Olympia, WA, to announce: "the application of Olson Bros. et al, was accepted." Plumb went on to give instructions for how the project should proceed. He wanted to ensure that the two sites would be "clean, comfortable, and practical," and that the buildings at Graves Creek and Enchanted Valley would be in "harmony with the wonderful scenery on the East Fork Quinault River." 43 A second survey party was sent to Enchanted Valley to study the Chalet site, "Lot 1 of the Enchanted Valley Recreation Unit," in May, 1928. 44

The term permit was finalized on January 1, 1929 and signed by M.H. Mulkey (president) and Charles Thomas (secretary) on behalf of the Olympic Recreation Company. The document reads: "permission is hereby given to Olympic Recreation Company of Quinault, Washington hereinafter called permittee, to use the following-described lands for a period of 2 years from date hereof, and in case the construction of improvements is completed [_] for a further period of 8 years." The permit grants 5 acres in Enchanted Valley where the company would build "all necessary structures for maintaining a summer resort." Construction of the Grave Creek Inn and Enchanted Valley Chalet had to begin within five months and finish within two years. 45 The Olympic Recreation Company began construction on Graves Creek Inn immediately.

1930s/Construction

In June, 1930 the Olympic Recreation Company began building the Enchanted Valley Chalet. The Olson brothers used their stock animals and equipment to pack in materials, and worked on the construction site as well. Throughout the summer season they also ran guided trips using Graves Creek Inn, a tent camp at Enchanted Valley, and possibly the South Fork tent camp.

The company hired a carpenter from Montesano to supervise construction and do much of the carpentry work. Tom E. Criswell (b. 1871) and his son Glenn Criswell (b. 1900) were on-site throughout the summer while the Olsons traveled through. According to a 1975 interview with Elvin Olson, 46 Tom Criswell's skilled carpentry and his strategies for conserving materials were impressive.

The Criswells and Olsons built a rectangular foundation that was 14 inches wide under each wall with a section 12 inches wide through the center. It was primarily made of rocks from the East Fork riverbed surrounded in concrete so that Elvin Olson only had to pack in "20 to 30 sets of cement." 47 They inscribed "1930" into the wet foundation.

The Chalet's first story was built of 12 inch silver fir logs harvested from the upper end of Enchanted Valley. Elvin Olson later described how the father-son team prepared logs and boards by hand:

"One of my brothers, Teander was up there with his team and hauled the logs in getting them off the hill [..] Criswell was quite an old man. But his son did the scoring and then Criswell would come in and he would just [..] knock off these slabs. He had a broad axe, but the darn thing must have weighed fifteen pounds[..] He started right down that score line and just drove from one end to another and when he was through he would have a board that would run anywhere from a half an inch to maybe three quarters of an inch." 48

The second story logs were smaller, just eight inches wide. Many were cut from the upper end of the first story logs. This allowed for space to tie the walls together. Rather than build the walls first and cut openings later, Criswell planned out the window and door openings so that the logs could be cut short before they were installed. This was done to conserve materials and make it possible to lift the logs with a small crew.

Throughout the summer the Olson brothers made Enchanted Valley their headquarters while they guided visitors along the East Fork. According the Elvin Olson, every time they stopped in the valley the Criswell's would have a "whole bunch of logs laid out and numbered." None of these were bigger than what the group could rise up by hand using two Gin poles and several skids, because the second story logs were cut small and short. The crew would "sometimes rise up as much as three or four feet in the one evening." 49 In this manner, the Chalet walls were completed within a few weeks.

Criswell selected green timber and anticipated how the logs would shrink as they dried. When the building was complete and dried out all its pieces fit together tightly, there were very few places where daylight showed in between the logs, and they required no chinking of any kind "just one log laying right on top of the other." 50

By September, 1930 the Enchanted Valley Chalet also had a cedar shake roof. In a 1976 interview Teander Olson described felling a cedar on the hill just above the Chalet, but said that most of the shake material came from "a windfall lying about a quarter of a mile below the Enchanted Valley." He retrieved these with a sled. 51 Elvin Olson recalls that the builders found only one large cedar roughly one mile from the build site and that it produced enough material for a staircase and all the shakes they needed. 52

In addition to constructing the main building, Criswell built some furniture for the Chalet, including a large bench. According to his relatives who stayed at the Chalet in 1944, "all the furniture" including chairs, bunk beds, tables, and reception desk were handmade by Criswell with the initials "TEC carved on many things; 53 However, John Olson and Elvin Olson both give credit to carpenter Roy Streator who replaced Criswell the following year. 54 All agree that Criswell planned to build a fireplace in the main room, and cut a hole for it, but then decided to wait until roof was finished. The fireplace was never built. 55

In 1929 and 1930 the company did not earn enough money by guiding and packing to pay for its building projects. The Olsons had "practically no business" at their tent camp and Superintendent Plumb reported that "resorts in the Olympics suffered considerably" during the financial depression. In 1930 the Olympic Chalet Company's operation at Low Divide did not earn enough to cover expenses and its manager, Ernest Voorhies, was "practically broke." 56 When the 1930 building season ended the Olympic Recreation Company reported to Superintendent Plumb that Graves Creek Inn cost $5054.60 and the Enchanted Valley Chalet so far cost $2675.85. The company fell short of the $8,000 they were supposed to have invested in both East Fork properties by this time. In February 1931, Charles Thomas (secretary-treasurer) requested a 6-month extension from the U.S. Forest Service, arguing that once the Forest Service road was completed up to Graves Creek Inn the Olsons would be able to pack building material into Enchanted Valley "at a much better advantage." 57

In May 1931 construction resumed at the Chalet. The Criswell's had planned on coming back to complete the work, but Tom Criswell was seriously ill and they did not return. Roy Streator was the new carpenter. He built the interior walls, ceilings, and floors. The interior of the building had tongue and groove wooden flooring on the first, second, and attic floors. Six bedrooms on the second floor had tongue and groove wall partitions. The floor boards and doors were packed in by the Olson brothers. Window casings and panes were constructed by Roy Knack of Knack Manufacturing in Hoquiam and packed in as well.

1930s/Management

In late summer, 1931 construction was complete and the Enchanted Valley Chalet opened for business. Elvin Olson worked as manager for the first two years. The first party of guests arrived on August 6: Mrs. J.R. Douglas, Mrs. R.D. Coons, Mrs. Carl T. Nelson, Mrs. Donald R. Charleston, Mrs. F. Frederic Wuenschel, Mrs. Helen Habi, and Mrs. Charles A. Middleton--all from Aberdeen, Washington--and Mr. and Mrs. Ray Dumett of Seattle, Washington. 58 Also that year, the U.S. Forest Service completed the road to Graves Creek Inn.

By June 1933, the Bureau of Public Roads was in the process of surveying for a trans-Olympic highway from Graves Creek to Dosewallips by way of Enchanted Valley. Directors of Olympic Recreation Company had advocated having the road built and expected to receive motorists at the Enchanted Valley Chalet within a year. According to Ranger Geerdes, the route was flagged from Graves Creek to O'Neil Creek when plans changed. 59 However, according to Elvin Olson, the surveyors had reached Enchanted Valley. 60 Either way, this scheme was well underway when the National Park System took over.

On June 10 1933, jurisdiction of all National Monuments was turned over to the National Park Service from the U.S. Forest Service by an executive order from President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The Olympic Recreation Company was notified that its contract with the U.S. Forest Service would be sustained by the National Park System. At the same time, the National Park Service had a new channel of public works funding and labor from the Civilian Conservation Corps [CCC]. This meant that private companies such as the Olympic Recreation Company had a strong partner in the National Park Service, because their roads, trails, signs, and telephone lines were impeccably maintained by CCC crews. 61 Elvin Olson left the company and went to work as a CCC foreman. Ignar Olson had been packing supplies to the Bureau of Public Roads survey crew, and took over management of the Olympic Recreation Company and the Enchanted Valley Chalet when the trans- Olympic road project was terminated.

The Olympic Chalet Company ran the Inn and Chalet from 1931 to 1942. Each year the season opened in June and closed after Labor Day. 62 According to a brochure 63 produced by the company around 1935, guests drove fifteen miles above Lake Quinault to stay at Grave Creek Inn (a "headquarters for splendid fishing") then were picked up by a representative of the company with a train of saddle horses and pack horses. When Ignar Olson was manager he would hitch the horses up around four o'clock in the morning and arrive at the Inn by seven thirty. 64 The saddle trail to the Enchanted Valley Chalet was an easy thirteen mile ride upstream along the East Fork.

The trail into Enchanted Valley was described in detail by ONP Ranger Raymond Geerdes twenty years later, and it has hardly changed since the Chalet opened. Geerdes wrote:

There are essentially two approaches to the valley that are feasible for most civilization adjusted mortals. [...] From the Dose Forks with its elevation of 1,817 feet, the hiker climbs for 5 miles steadily to 2,814 feet elevation at the Diamond Meadow shelter; on upwards for four more miles to Anderson pass shelter at 4,464 feet elevation, and then drops some 2,300 feet in six miles before reaching the Chalet at the lower end of Enchanted Valley. [...] What makes this approach the less feasible is the abundance of snow that covers the trail for several miles on either side of Anderson Pass until very late in July or even late into August some years.

The more likely approach to Enchanted Valley is from the reverse direction. [...] From the Ranger Station at Graves Creek to the end of the road is about 3 miles; and from there by trail to the Enchanted Valley Chalet is 10.9 miles. 65 O'Neil Creek Shelter is about the half-way point, and many hikers spend the night there, hiking the remaining distance the next day. The trail is a gentle one, following the left bank of the Quinault to Pony Bridge where it crosses a box canyon. It then follows the other bank of the Quinault until it recrosses the river just below the Chalet. Along this trail the hiker will ascend from about 700 feet at the end of the road to about 2,000 feet at the lower end of Enchanted Valley. The grade this far is about 5%. The trail above the Chalet rises rapidly in the next five miles to about 4,500 feet, or a grade of 10%. The trail into the Chalet is virtually free from snow the biggest share of the year. This is the trail taken by the majority of hikers and wilderness enthusiasts who visit Enchanted Valley. 66

Living conditions at the Chalet were determined by the conditions of the wild mountains around it. Although the building served as a small island of civilization in the Olympics it was always rustic and remote. Tourists enjoyed the safety and comfort of the Chalet as much as they enjoyed the challenges, adventures, and discomforts of exploring the backcountry.

Arriving at the valley, tourists would "find nature at her very best, with streams coursing through banks covered with snow through most of the year, and with flowers and green grass in the same vicinity." The company advertised magnificent waterfalls, views of Mount Anderson, and day trips to Anderson Glacier. Guides cost $6.00 per day; saddle horses and pack horses were $3.00 per day. A longer five day "feature trip" from Graves Creek to Brinnon on Hood Canal cost $45.00 per person, including all guides and equipment. The Olympic Chalet Company and Olympic Recreation Company occasionally shared saddle and pack horses when arranging large trips. 67

The Chalet had six rooms on the second floor 68 which could be rented for $4.50 per day, or $4.00 for if two guests shared one room. The weekly rate was $27.00 for one person or $24.00 for two people. The company brochure describes both Graves Creek Inn and the Enchanted Valley Chalet as "surprisingly modern rustic mountain lodgings." The building contained a kitchen and combined lobby/dining room on the ground floor. 69 An impressive reception desk made of peeled hemlock with a cedar top sat in the lobby. Guests could purchase simple camping supplies and small grocery items such as candy bars. 70 There were at least fifteen Adirondack-style chairs in the first floor lobby and living room, all pointed out the Chalet windows and furnished with moss-filled cushions hand- made by Jessie Olson. Salt licks installed outside the windows attracted deer for the guests to watch. 71 Visitors often gathered in the lobby to share stories and enjoy the scenery.

The waterfalls in Enchanted Valley have a variable character depending on the time of year. In winter heavy rainstorms enlarge the falls or freeze them. In early spring, snow caves form at the base of the largest falls, and through a process of thawing and freezing the water famously puts on a show. In an oral history interview Ernie Vail, former ONP Trail's Supervisor, gave a vivid description of the spring melt-outs that usually occur in late April and early May:

You're watching a waterfall and suddenly it just stops. It'll plug up with fresh snow up above and for about twenty minutes it'll build up a lake behind that. When it blows it'll blow your mind, because it's like thunder. When it breaks, that snow comes down and the impact on the valley floor just shakes. I get goose bumps telling you about it. [...] Sometimes that whole bank up there, which is about three-thousand feet elevation--a wall of snow [...]will come down, I mean its huge and the impact is so drastic. [...] It turns it right into ice-it's incredible. [...] When the snow caves crash in, you can see the water go backwards up the waterfall like four hundred feet. [..] When it hits and caves right in and the stream goes-- you see water shoot up about four-hundred feet high and then come back down. 72

In spring the Olympic Recreation Company's guests could observe the cliffs and falls from the Chalet windows, and by summer the waterfalls were sometimes warm enough to play in. According to Ernie Vail, even though the run-off is snow-melt, it warms up as it falls several thousand feet over warm cliff faces in the sunlight. The waterfalls soak people in the summer, variously pulsing, misting, or blasting with warm water.

In 1934, Ignar Olson installed a water system and phone line. According to his son John Olson, it was possible to make a call from Enchanted Valley to New York in those days. 73 During winter the phone line usually fell down and had to be restrung along the trail at the start of every tourist season.

The water system quickly became a celebrated feature at the Chalet. Chalet guests in the 1930s and 40s enjoyed the luxury of an indoor bathroom with warm water piped up from the kitchen wood stove. A second story bedroom across from the staircase was converted, its floor raised to accommodate plumbing, and a partition installed to separate the water closet (sink and toilet) and bathing area. To this day, the arrival of an iron bathtub to Enchanted Valley is by far the most popular story associated with the Chalet. Ranger Geerdes included described the event in Enchanted Valley and its Chalet:

Packing in such an awkward fixture as a bathtub has never stopped amazing visitors to the Chalet. [...] The feat was accomplished by harnessing a horse and a single-tree to a wedge mechanism that skidded along the trail on two runners. Behind were two v-shaped poles to guide it. One of the brothers led the horse and the other attempted to guide the tub. It seems that the whole procedure was quite a strain on the arm muscles and the bathtub was deposited besides Pyrites Creek for the night while the two men went on to the Chalet. It must have been a rather incongruous sight to trail hikers suddenly coming upon a bathtub beside a turbulent little wilderness stream. 74

Ignar and Jessie Olson's son John, then approximately eight years, rode in the tub along the way. 75 At the end of each season the plumbing was disassembled, drained, and stored. The Chalet staff and guests ate together around one large table. 76

Generally the company employed a cook who served regular meals, family style, with large bowls shared between diners. A woman named Francis was cook for the first year, followed by Geneva Chase in 1932. Thereafter, Jessie Olson and Ignar Olson were cooks, housekeepers, and co- managers of the Chalet. Ignar split his time between the managing the business and packing for the U.S. Geologic Survey. Jessie usually managed the business from Graves Creek Inn and ran their farm when Ignar was away.

By necessity, the cooks mostly prepared meals from canned and dry goods. There was never a garden in Enchanted Valley; however, the cooks often foraged for fresh ingredients that grew nearby, such as blackcap mushrooms, onions, wild strawberries, and salmonberries. For only one year the company provided fresh milk by keeping a cow turned out to pasture with the pack and saddle horses. Frozen meat and other perishable goods were stored inside snow caves at the valley's upper end. 77

A few outbuildings contributed to the Chalet operation: a privy, a woodshed, the Olson family trap shack, and the US Forest Service cabin. According to John Olson, the woodshed 78 had split cedar siding "like most everything was in those days." The wood was primarily used in summer for cooking because no one lived at the Chalet in winter. It had a steep gable roof designed to shed snow and high enough to comfortably stand under. The privy also has a steep gable roof to shed snow.

When the Chalet opened in 1931 the trap shack roof was extended to create a four-six foot overhang. This was originally done to keep supplies dry during construction, but in later years it enabled the Olsons to bring their stock up to Enchanted Valley earlier in the season. It acted as an emergency shelter for horses. Inside they kept a stash of cooking equipment and food. There was a woodstove against the back wall, two bunks to one side and a third on the other side. Originally the building had a split cedar puncheon floor; it may have been a dirt floor shortly before it was removed. It was probably torn down in the 1940s, although it is unknown whether this was initiated by the National Park Service or the Olsons. 79

Evidently, the Enchanted Valley Chalet's best years of operation were 1932-36. 80 Between 1929 and 1933 the U.S. economy shrank dramatically and tourism industries across the country were affected. Recreation companies in the Olympics offered a relatively inexpensive way for people to escape economic hardships in the front country, so businesses such as the Enchanted Valley Chalet were not immediately hit by the depression. According to Ignar Olson, when all accommodations at the Chalet were filled in peak season, the company erected tents to lodge additional guests. 81 However, in 1937 and 1938 the U.S. economy took a second severe downturn. This period coincided with several lean years for the Olympic Recreation Company.

1930s/Olympic Chalet Company

The Olympic Chalet Company was always the Olympic Recreation Company's closest counterpart. At its inception, the Olympic Chalet Company was politically and financially more powerful than the Olympic Recreation Company, yet neither their business nor their buildings lasted as long.

Originally the company directors had ambitious plans to build three Chalets and twelve shelter camps along the North Fork; at various times they also considered constructing an airfield at Low Divide, a reservoir for hydroplanes, and even an aerial tramway from Lake Quinault to Mount Baldy. In fact, their operation remained very similar to that of the Olympic Recreation Company. The Olympic Chalet Company ran trips between the North Fork trailhead, a shelter nine miles into the backcountry which was appropriately called Nine Mile Shelter or "the Halfway House," and a Chalet eleven miles further at Low Divide.

The Low Divide Chalet was a rustic log structure built in the summers of 1926 and 1927 at the headwaters of the North Fork. With a 35'x 50' footprint and 1 1/2 stories under a gable roof, the Low Divide Chalet was slightly smaller than the Enchanted Valley Chalet. In 1929 and 1930 five cabins and a bathhouse were built to increase the resort's capacity; however, by all accounts the company never made a profit from the Chalet. While the Olympic Recreation Company was pitching tent camps to accommodate extra visitors, in the early 1930s the Olympic Chalet Company twice failed to pay the U.S. Forest Service for its special use permit. In 1936, as business at the Enchanted Valley Chalet began to decline, the Olympic Chalet Company was automatically dissolved by the state of Washington for failing to pay its corporate license fee. 82 Finally, the Low Divide Chalet building was destroyed by an avalanche in 1944. 83

1940s/WWII

In 1938 Enchanted Valley and a substantial portion of the interior Olympic Peninsula became Olympic National Park [ONP]. This changed the way that the National Park Service managed recreational use in the Olympics. The Chalet's managers were not optimistic when advised that the National Park Service would "continue the privileges granted by the Forest Service which do not conflict with the National Park administration objectives." 84

In March 1939, the company directors sent several letters to Washington Representative Monrad C. Wallgren stating that the directors had "unanimously decide" 85 to sell the Enchanted Valley Chalet and Graves Creek Inn to the National Park Service. They requested a bill to allocate funds for the park to purchase them. The company hoped to sell quickly and make 1939 the last operating season. Later that year, Washington Representative Martin F. Smith proposed a bill in the first session of the 76th Congress, but without success." 86 The East Fork properties remained open for several more years.

1942 was the Chalet's twelfth and final year as a private hotel. On April 11 Ignar Olson wrote to ONP Superintendent Preston Macy to say that the Chalet would be open but difficult to run. 87 According to ONP Ranger Raymond Geerdes, who was stationed in the Quinault sub-district:

The relationship between the Park Service and the Olympic Recreation Company was not always on the highest terms. Funds for trails and telephone maintenance were not always available in the amounts necessary. Snow in the high country kept the backcountry trails shut until late in the season. Although the Park Service offered the organization the same permit that they had received from the Forest Service, it was not always possible to maintain the same standards of trail maintenance that was possible under the period of CCC appropriations for such purposes. The purpose of the National Park Service was to reserve the area intact as wilderness in character. For ultimate survival, the Chalet needed a road, and it was against Park Service policy to build one. Neither was the park responsible for the depression of the coming on World War II which finally finished the operations of the company. The Olympic Recreation Company was a commercial venture, interested naturally in returning a profit to its stockholders. The Park Service was interested in making available, without charge, a wilderness area for the people of the United States. 88


Furthermore, the Olympic Recreation Company was hindered by gas shortages, tire shortages and military regulations within the park. In 1942 the use of all national parks dropped by 55%. 89 The United States was engaged in World War II, not just abroad but also on the Pacific coast in Oregon and Washington. The Olympic Peninsula was a critical area for defense because of its proximity to the Strait of Juan de Fuca, shipyards at Bremerton, a Navy intelligence facility on Bainbridge Island, the Boeing plant in Seattle, and the ports at Seattle and Tacoma. The Enchanted Valley Chalet was one of thirteen structures in the park either occupied or built to serve the Aircraft Warning Service (AWS). In August 1943 Ignar wrote to Macy again to report that the Chalet "had no guests" and was not operating. 90

The AWS began in summer of 1942 and consisted of small observation points set up in state and federal parks, Tribal reservations, and private lands; all were active until 1944. In urban areas the observers were volunteers coordinated by the Civil Defense Agency, but in remote areas throughout Oregon and Washington the AWS staff were paid observers supervised by the US Forest Service. In Washington, the AWS posts were supervised by Lloyde E Brown, who later wrote about the program on the thirtieth anniversary of its termination:

The AWS posts had to be manned by two people to provide 24-hour, daily observation. They had to have telephone or radio communication to their army filter centers and to their supervisory headquarters. Generally, all of these observation posts in Region Six, covered the areas quite thoroughly, from the Pacific Ocean to the Cascade Mountains, and From California to the Canadian border, and along the Canadian border to Idaho. Keeping the AWS posts supplied with food and fuel as well as keeping communications working in the winter with deep snow was difficult at times. [...] The purpose of the Aircraft Warning Service was to prevent Japanese planes from attacking the U.S. The observers had to report every plane they saw or heard to their filter center immediately. Private planes were banned from the area, so the only planes to report were military or commercial passenger planes. If an observer failed to report a plane that should have been within 6 miles of his post, the Army called it a miss. Two misses, and we had to go to the post, sometimes on snowshoes, to see what caused the miss, such as observers absent, communication failure, or could not see because of storms. 91


The Chalet's remote sitting made it a useful defense point, but one that was difficult to maintain. It was occupied by AWS personnel from 1943 to June 1, 1944. 92 According to John Olson, the spotters at the Chalet were "an older couple" whose last name was Kempf. 93 They are the only people ever known to have spent an entire year, especially a winter, in the Chalet. 94

The National Park Service provided critical services for AWS posts throughout ONP, including constructing and maintaining lookout buildings, roads, trails, and phone lines. They also supplied cots, maps, CCC crews, tractors, and trucks at considerable cost. Once a month, Ignar Olson packed supplies to the observers posted at Enchanted Valley. 95

1940s/Sale to NPS

Throughout the late 1940s and early 1950s the National Park Service slowly recovered from the overwhelming expense and staff time that World War II had demanded. With little money and increasing numbers of visitors, the park was focused on tackling a backlog of maintenance projects. On December 6, 1944 Representative Fred B. Norman proposed a bill which Congress then passed without debate, authorizing purchase of all the Olympic Chalet Company' and Olympic Recreation Company's holdings. Price negotiations continued for several years. Meanwhile, the Enchanted Valley Chalet was empty, with no formal management.

Finally, in September 1949 the National Park Service had the Olympic Recreation Company's buildings appraised and determined that the value of the Enchanted Valley Chalet was $7,200 and Graves Creek Inn was worth $2,880. 96 This remarkably low bid was less than the construction costs that were previously acknowledged by the U.S. Forest. Evidently, the Olympic Recreation Company had difficulty demonstrating their full investment in the properties. Elvin Olson later said that they had a hard time putting "a regular amount on it" because the company owners did much of the work themselves, with their own stock animals, and other contributors such as the Criswell's worked for very little just to have the experience of building in Enchanted Valley. 97 The deal finally went through on 27 January, 1951. The bill of sale transferring title of the property to the U.S. Government was recorded at Port Townsend, Washington.

1953/Ranger Station opens

The Enchanted Valley Chalet had been unoccupied for nine years, yet it was not immediately put back in use by its new owners. Before the 1951 park season opened, Quinault District Ranger Dewey Webster reported that many hikers were using the Enchanted Valley Chalet, yet he had "never been officially notified that the park owned the building, nor been given the keys." 98 Two years later Quinault District Ranger Lee Sneddon reported that trail traffic into Enchanted Valley was increasing and the Chalet was being used by most hikers. The park did not have a ranger stationed at the building. According to Ranger Geerdes, park staff began discussing the possibility of officially re-opening the Chalet for public use, "while putting them on their honor for proper careful usage." 99

With this in mind, Park Superintendent Fred J. Overly took his family to Enchanted Valley on June 5, 1953 to assess its condition. Overly had replaced Superintendent Preston Macy in 1951 and under his leadership there was a greater emphasis on visitor services. The number of park users rose dramatically, from just over 400,000 in 1950 to nearly 1.2 million in 1958. 100 On this trip, Overly concluded that the public use had been so far "satisfactory," 101 and he determined that the Chalet could serve a useful purpose to the park.

That summer, the Chalet was repaired and officially opened to the public. The extent of these repairs is unknown; at best guess, this may have been when ONP staff constructed an interior wall adjacent to the kitchen, reducing the former combined lobby/dining room. The room next to the kitchen is often called the dining room or the bedroom and it is not an original feature of the building. The wall and doorway were constructed sometime between the 1940 appraisal and a 1985 condition assessment. The assessor, Donald Peting, called them "additions of an earlier time, [well] crafted, and currently useful." 102

A reasonable estimate is that over 300 hikers made use of the building during the summer of 1953. Ranger Geerdes wrote that "a typical day would find all of the seven rooms utilized on the second floor, with perhaps a party of boy scouts sleeping on the floor in the dining room downstairs." The following year was just as busy. Geerdes reported that in a single day in late June, 1954, rangers at the Graves Creek Ranger Station issued 36 fire permits to Chalet visitors. In August, the park stationed a seasonal ranger in the Chalet to accommodate increased use.

1959/Alterations by NPS and SCA

A significant volunteer project was undertaken by the Student Conservation Program, later known as the Student Conservation Association (SCA) in 1959. The SCA began in 1957 under Mission 66 to provide work experience for students and to complete special projects in national parks. At ONP, Jack Dolstad supervised two crews of young men who contributed three hundred days of work during the summer. They were in Enchanted Valley in June and August. According to supervisor John Douglas Dolstad, the Chalet was cleaned thoroughly six times. All broken windows are replaced with new glass; the useless toilet, left behind by the Olympic Recreation Company, was removed and the waterless bathroom converted to a bedroom; 103 and they split one thousand cedar shakes to replace the roof. 104

1950s-2012/ Ranger Station

Since 1953, the Enchanted Valley Chalet has been used for park administrative purposes. Enchanted Valley is roughly one or two days' hike from the Graves Creek trail head and it is on a main trial through one of the most popular areas of the Olympics. This makes the building an ideal location for park operations.

The Maintenance Division uses it to store fuel, rest pack stock, and store and maintain equipment used for clearing trails throughout the Olympic interior. The Natural Resources Division uses the area as a base of operations for research expeditions and for equipment storage. In addition, the valley is used as a landing site and base of operations for Search and Rescue in the southern portion of the park. As a Ranger Station the Chalet is an important point for visitor contact. According to a 2006 assessment, "ONP presence in the Enchanted Valley area provides an opportunity for educating visitors, preventing resource impacts, and enforcing park regulations."

Since the Ranger Station opened, rangers have written daily reports on the number of visitors staying inside the Chalet or camping in the surrounding area, the number of stock animals present, descriptions of wildlife encounters and visitor contact, medical emergencies and rescue parties, weather conditions, and tasks performed by the rangers each day. At the start of every season, a ranger would arrive at the building in June to assess its condition and prepare it for summer activities. Often they found bear damage, evidence of unauthorized use, and vandalism such as broken windows, damage to the exterior doors, and supplies taken from the storage room. 105 The rangers stationed at Enchanted Valley were responsible for routine maintenance projects such as upkeep on the water system, privies, trails, radio, and Chalet floors. Until a "pack-it-out" program was introduced in 1969 the rangers frequently burned garbage pits. Other tasks were undertaken every few years as needed; for example: the porch roof was replaced (1972), bunk beds and a hitching post constructed (1971), and the emergency shelter painted "in hopes of decreasing carvers and graffiti,"(1978) 106 They also delegated maintenance tasks to hiking groups that camped at Enchanted Valley. Boy Scout and Campfire troops, church groups, student conservation crews, and ONP trail crews frequently worked on the Chalet and surrounding campsites.

At the end of a season, Ranger Wiemer left a vivid description of life in the Enchanted Valley:

This valley has meant a lot of things to me; it's meant knee deep mud, irate scout masters, blisters, bear attacks, skunk attacks, nettles, picking up trash, cleaning the privies, two straight weeks of rain, and shoveling horse shit--but it also meant sun heated water falls falling into basins, views too beautiful to describe, living in a three story Chalet, being the 'Enchanted Ranger', more berries than I could eat, fantastic people from all over the country, 50 different types of wildflowers, a hanging glacier just outside my window, some of the largest trees in the world, getting my body back in shape, getting my mind together, and much more that I can't even describe and probably don't even realize. 107


The men and women who have called themselves Enchanted Rangers experienced Enchanted Valley and its Chalet in a way that few people besides the Olson family ever did. Because of its location and sporadic use, most people stay in the building for an occasional night in June, July, or August--only the Rangers are exposed to an entire season.

Ranger Carl Pengrantz was stationed at Enchanted Valley for three consecutive summers and later returned while working on the trail crew. At the end of a season he wrote: "Nature--understanding it a little more every day. How can people race through this place and say they've seen EV? I haven't even begun to see it and I've been 3 seasons. [...] The biggest accomplishment was that I learned to live in the valley." 108 Those who return for multiple seasons established traditions such as an annual Enchanted Valley Food Fest, which ran from the 1970s to early 1990s.

Likewise, Ranger Howard "Mike" Doherty wrote: "this has been more than a job certainly--it has been a pleasure, and yet a burden (a most maturing experience to have been one-on-one with nature at times--she keeps on winning!) 109

1950s-2012/ Emergency Shelter

Enchanted Valley, and the neighboring glaciers and mountain peaks, can be a treacherous place to face nature one-on-one. According to a 2006 assessment, the Chalet is vital to park operations, not just for ONP staff but also "for the enjoyment, health and safety of visitors. Enchanted Valley, and the neighboring glaciers and mountain peaks, can be a treacherous place to face nature one-on-one. According to a 2006 assessment, the Chalet is vital to park operations, not just for ONP staff but also "for the enjoyment, health and safety of visitors." 110 As an emergency shelter it can be a game-changer for visitors who are injured, trapped by storms, or facing other unexpected difficulties.

Emergency shelters throughout ONP are a mix of historic shelters of varying ages and designs including rehabilitated shelters and repurposed buildings. A system of shake-sided high-pitched roof shelters was initiated by the US Forest in the late 1920's and early 1930s. The system has since been expanded with many small, log-sided shelters (1950s) and hewn-log designs (1960s) built by the National Park System. The USFS and NPS shelters can be considered "official" shelters, as opposed to structures that were adapted from different origins. According to the park's Shelter Establishment Criteria, "the most outstanding example of this de facto condition is the Enchanted Valley Chalet." 111

For many years, all three levels of the Chalet were available for visitors to use as a shelter, and not just in emergencies. It was very rare for the Chalet to be unoccupied even one night during the summer. 112 On a day in late August, 1968, Ranger David Holloway wrote: "85 people (!!) at the Chalet [...] Scout Troops 138 and 142 from Seattle in here, and Troop 422 from Enumclaw outside [...] A bear climbed onto the porch roof and looked in the second floor windows, scaring Troops a bit." 113 Rangers often entertained small groups for coffee and tea, or salmonberry pies; at other times they struggled to prevent large groups from harassing wildlife and other hikers, or damaging the building.

In bad weather the Chalet would become crowded with hikers. Ranger Geerdes wrote: "for me as many others of the trail it represented warmth and comfort as well as mystery and beauty." Dale Durrwachter was a Trail Crew Foreman at ONP in the early 1960s. In a letter to the park staff he described a "terrific storm" that struck the valley one August: "At 6pm we were the only people in the Chalet when a terrific storm descended. By 11pm there were bodies of Park Visitors in sleeping bags covering both the 1st and 2nd floors." 114

At first park visitors were allowed to stay in the second story rooms but by 1975 they were limited to a large "visitor room" on the first floor. 115 The park constructed a wall around the staircase so that the upper floors could only be reached by rangers. This was done to encourage visitors to camp outside and make it easier for rangers to monitor activity inside the building. However, it became more difficult to accommodate large groups in emergencies. Later that year Ranger Leinman wrote: "Rangers losing sanity with people coming and going through ranger station to upstairs. 67 people IN Chalet. Help!" 116

In the 1980s and 1990s, the emergency shelter space was further reduced to keep visitors from misusing it. Unfortunately, this means that they rarely have an opportunity to see the upper floors, which are better preserved than the first floor. The new restrictions have also lead to some surprises; in September 1977 seasonal Ranger Carl Weimer wrote that a "visitor showed up in the evening insistent on wanting to go upstairs. Reaching between double floor boards of the old bathroom the visitor miraculously produced a bottle of German wine which he said had been hidden there since 1972. You guessed it; we sat down and drank it!"

1964/ Wilderness Act

The Chalet's adaptive use as a Ranger Station and emergency shelter made it an asset to park management, which in turn gave it resilience during implementation of the 1964 Wilderness Act. The Wilderness Act works in partnership with the 1966 National Historic Preservation Act to protect all National Park resources. A wilderness designation involves "no transfer, sale, disposal, or other action which may adversely affect historical or archeological resources." Although unnecessary structures are inconsistent with wilderness, it should not pose a threat to historic buildings, such as the Chalet; however, the Chalet's history was not well understood when the Wilderness Act went into effect.

As early as 1953, Raymond Geerdes had written in reference to Chalet that the park struggled to "keep the area essentially wild and yet useful to our citizens." 117 In the 1970s, NPS staff prepared to designate a large wilderness area in the park. The Pacific Regional office laid out a plan for managing historic resources contained within the "Proposed Olympic Wilderness," in a "Final Environmental Statement" dated July 1974:

The National Register of Historic Places has been consulted, and no properties located in Olympic National Park are listed. [...]The comprehensive inventory required by Executive Order 11593 is scheduled for completion by the spring of 1975. All properties meeting the criteria for the National Register will be nominated in compliance with Section 2(a) of Executive Order 11593. [...]Existing and potential National Register properties will not be affected by the wilderness proposal. 118


At this point in time, the Enchanted Valley Chalet was not formally recognized as a cultural resource and Enchanted Valley was included in the potential wilderness area. The inventory was due to be completed in 1975 but was not finished until 1983.

1970s/ Proposal to Reopen Chalet

Remarkably, the National Park Service simultaneously considered plans to build more recreational developments in Enchanted Valley. When the 1980 Master Plan was drafted, ONP staff included a proposal to build a "backcountry hostel" at Enchanted Valley. This plan is described in the Master Plan under a section called "Alternatives Which Were Proposals in the Draft Master Plan":

The 32-person facilities, each with a supporting ranger station and caretakers quarters, would be located at Enchanted Valley and at Diamond Meadows. Construction of the hostels would require site clearance for the buildings, water and sewer lines, and associated disturbance of vegetation and soils.[...] The hostels would offer a backcountry experience to people who are not equipped with backpacks, sleeping bags, and camping equipment for independent overnight trips. Since the hostels would exceed the minimum facilities permitted in wilderness, two 20-acre enclaves from the proposed wilderness would be required. 119


Another section called "Alternatives Which Were Considered in the Draft Environmental Impact Statement" describes a plan to construct a trans-Olympic road from Graves Creek in Quinault Valley to Enchanted Valley and over Anderson Pass to Dosewallips, exactly like the road which was planned and partly surveyed by the US Forest Service in 1933. 120 Neither of these projects came about, and the Enchanted Valley Chalet remained a Ranger Station and Emergency Shelter.

1980s/Restoration by NPS and Olympians [Incomplete and not updated since draft #2]

In the early 1980s ONP undertook a major project to restore the Enchanted Valley Chalet, and partnered with The Olympians hiking club. This was the largest collaborative project between the National Park Service and any public organization in the NPS Pacific Northwest Region. From the NPS side, the project was coordinated and led by Allan Comp, Chief of Cultural Resources for the Pacific Northwest Region. It was intended to be completed during the summer of 1983, but more tasks were identified during the first season and the projects continued in 1984 and 1985.

The Olympians' side was led by several influential members: Anne Moisanen, a Montesano resident who regularly took her Girl Scout Troop to Enchanted Valley and was chair of the club's Conservation Committee and Helge Erickson, an experienced trip leader who was particularly attached to the Chalet. Moisanen and Erickson were especially passionate about preserving the structure, and through their heartfelt dedication to both the Olympians and the Chalet they were able to organize a remarkable volunteer campaign.


HOME / PART 2


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1 "Enchanted Valley." Satellite image. Google Maps. Google, n.d. Web. 28 July, 2014.
2 Evans, Gail H. E. "Historic Resource Study of Olympic National Park." NPS Pacific Northwest Region Cultural Resources Division. 1983. ONP Archives.
3 Geerdes, Raymond. "Enchanted Valley and Its Chalet." 1954. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
4 Olson, Richard quoted by Dodge, John. "A Pioneer's Memories." The Daily World, Aberdeen, WA. 6 August 1983. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Files (unprocessed collection). Folder "Enchanted Valley Chalet."
5 Dodge, John. "A Pioneer's Memories." The Daily World, Aberdeen, WA. 6 August 1983. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Files (unprocessed collection). Folder "Enchanted Valley Chalet."
6 Beorse, Bryn. "Pioneer learned ways of wilderness, self-reliance." The Daily World, Aberdeen, WA. 13 November 1983. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Files (unprocessed collection). Folder "Enchanted Valley Chalet."
7 The Olympic Recreation Company. "Enchanted Valley." Advertising brochure. ca. 1935. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Files (unprocessed collection). Folder "Enchanted Valley Chalet"
8 O'Neil, Joseph quoted by Geerdes, Raymond. "Enchanted Valley and Its Chalet." 1954. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
9 ONP. "Backcountry Historic Structures Report." Page 2. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection.
10 Beorse, Bryn. "Pioneer learned ways of wilderness, self-reliance." The Daily World, Aberdeen, WA. 13 November 1983. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Files (unprocessed collection). Folder "Enchanted Valley Chalet."
11 Geerdes, Raymond. "Enchanted Valley and Its Chalet." 1954. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
12 Olson, John. Oral History Interview. 20 August 2003. ONP Archives. Oral Histories.
13 ONP. "Backcountry Historic Structures Report." Page 2. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection.
14 Olson, Elvin. Interviewed by Mike Dougherty in 1975. Oral Histories, ONP Archives.
15 ONP. "Backcountry Historic Structures; Report." Page 3. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection.
16 Evans, Gail H. E. "Historic Resource Study of Olympic National Park." Page 221. NPS Pacific Northwest Region Cultural Resources Division. 1983. ONP Archives.
17 ONP. "Backcountry Historic Structures Report." Page 5. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection.
18 ONP. "Backcountry Historic Structures Report." Page 32. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection.
19 ONP. "Backcountry Historic Structures; Report." Page 28. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection.
20 Evans, Gail H. E. "Historic Resource Study of Olympic National Park." NPS Pacific Northwest Region Cultural Resources Division. 1983. ONP Archives.
21 Olson, Elvin. Message to H.L. Plumb. 13 January 1927. Letter. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
22 Geerdes, Raymond. "Enchanted Valley and Its Chalet." 1954. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
23 Olson, Elvin. Message to H.L. Plumb. 13 January 1927. Letter. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
24 Unknown. "Enjoy the Olympics." The Daily Washingtonian. Hoquiam, WA. 30 June 1927. Newspaper add. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Files (unprocessed collection). Folder "Enchanted Valley Chalet."
25 Olson, Elvin. Message to US Forest Service. 31 June 1927. Letter. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
26 Cleator, F.W. quoted in Geerdes, Raymond. "Enchanted Valley and Its Chalet." 1954. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
27 Olson, Elvin. Oral History Interview. 1975. ONP Archives. Oral Histories.
28 ONP. "Backcountry Historic Structures Report." Page 7. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection.
29 Cleator quoted in Geerdes, Raymond. "Enchanted Valley and Its Chalet." 1954. Page 14. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports:. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
30 Evans, Gail H. E. "Historic Resource Study of Olympic National Park." NPS Pacific Northwest Region Cultural Resources Division. 1983. ONP Archives.
31 United States Forest Service. "Prospectus: Resort East Fork Quinault River, Olympic National Forest." 13 March 1928. Letter and attached document. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
32 Plumb, H.L. Message to Forest Supervisor, Olympia WA. 24 February 1931. Letter. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
33 United States Forest Service. "Prospectus: Resort East Fork Quinault River, Olympic National Forest." 13 March 1928. Letter and attached document. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
34 Unknown. "Bids Called for Building at New Resort in Forest." The Oregonian. 19 March 1928. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Files (unprocessed collection). Folder "Enchanted Valley Chalet."
35 Olson, Elvin. Message to H.L. Plumb. 13 January 1927. Letter. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
36 United States Forest Service. "Prospectus: Resort East Fork Quinault River, Olympic National Forest." 13 March 1928. Letter and attached document. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
37 Evans, Gail H. E. "Historic Resource Study of Olympic National Park." Page 295. NPS Pacific Northwest Region Cultural Resources Division. 1983. ONP Archives.
38 Jones, N.A. "Subscription Agreement." 9 April 1928. Legal document prepared for Olympic Recreation Company by Amanda Park Mercantile Co. of Quinault Lake, WA. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
39 Jones, N.A. "Subscription Agreement." 9 April 1928. Legal document prepared for Olympic Recreation Company by Amanda Park Mercantile Co. of Quinault Lake, WA. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
40 Quinault Commercial Club. Message to H.L. Plumb. 20 April 1928. Letter. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
41 Plumb, H.L. Message to Forest Supervisor, Olympia WA. 3 May 1928. Letter. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
42 Quinault Commercial Club. Message to H.L. Plumb. 20 April 1928. Letter. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10. The Quinault Commercial Club mistakenly refers to the Olson Bros., meaning the Olympic Recreation Company which was just eleven days old.
43 Plumb, H.L. Message to Forest Supervisor, Olympia WA. 3 May 1928. Letter. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
44 Geerdes, Raymond. "Enchanted Valley and Its Chalet." 1954. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
45 United States Forest Service. "Term Permit." 1 January 1929. Legal document prepared for Olympic Recreation Company. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
46 Olson, Elvin. Oral History Interview. 1975. ONP Archives. Oral Histories.
47 Olson, Elvin. Oral History Interview. 1975. ONP Archives. Oral Histories.
48 Olson, Elvin. Oral History Interview. 1975. ONP Archives. Oral Histories.
49 Olson, Elvin. Oral History Interview. 1975. ONP Archives. Oral Histories.
50 Olson, Elvin. Oral History Interview. 1975. ONP Archives. Oral Histories.
51 Olson, Teander. Interviewed by Mike Dougherty in 1976. Oral Histories, Olympic National Park Archives.
52 Olson, Elvin. Oral History Interview. 1975. ONP Archives. Oral Histories.
53 Schwab, Mr. and Mrs. William. Message to Quinault Ranger Station. 14 July 1977. Olympic National Park Archives.
54 Olson, Elvin. Oral History Interview. 1975. ONP Archives. Oral Histories.
55 Olson, John. Interviewed by Paul Gleeson. 20 August 2003. Oral Histories, Olympic National Park Archives.
56 Plumb, H.L. Message to Forest Supervisor, Olympia WA. 24 February 1931. Letter. Olympic National Park Archives.
57 Olympic Recreation Company. Message to H.L. Plumb. 20 February 1931. Olympic National Park Archives.
58 Geerdes, Raymond. "Enchanted Valley and Its Chalet." 1954. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
59 Geerdes, Raymond. "Enchanted Valley and Its Chalet." 1954. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
60 Olson, Elvin. Oral History Interview. 1975. ONP Archives. Oral Histories.
61 ONP. "Backcountry Historic Structures Report." ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection.
62 Olson, John. Oral History Interview. 20 August 2003. ONP Archives. Oral Histories.
63 The Olympic Recreation Company. "Enchanted Valley." Advertising brochure. ca. 1935. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Files (unprocessed collection). Folder "Enchanted Valley Chalet."
64 Olson, John. Oral History Interview. 20 August 2003. ONP Archives. Oral Histories.
65 As of 2014, the trail from Graves Creek trailhead to Enchanted Valley is13.5 miles. Two miles of gravel road were returned to trail, and the trail has been gradually rerouted over time.
66 Geerdes, Raymond. "Enchanted Valley and Its Chalet." 1954. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
67 Olson, Elvin. Oral History Interview. 1975. ONP Archives. Oral Histories.
68 Masters, D.A. "Certificate of Appraisal for Graves Creek Inn and Enchanted Valley Chalet". 20 September 1949. Document prepared for National Park Service. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
69 Masters, D.A. "Certificate of Appraisal for Graves Creek Inn and Enchanted Valley Chalet". 20 September 1949. Document prepared for National Park Service. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
70 Olson, John. Oral History Interview. 20 August 2003. ONP Archives. Oral Histories.
71 Olson, Teander. Oral History Interview. 1976. ONP Archives. Oral Histories.
72 Vail, Ernie. Oral History Interview. 2014. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection.
73 Olson, John. Oral History Interview. 20 August 2003. ONP Archives. Oral Histories.
74 Geerdes, Raymond. "Enchanted Valley and Its Chalet." 1954. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
75 Olson, John. Oral History Interview. 20 August 2003. ONP Archives. Oral Histories.
76 Olson, John. Oral History Interview. 20 August 2003. ONP Archives. Oral Histories.
77 Olson, Elvin. Oral History Interview. 1975. ONP Archives. Oral Histories.
78 Olson, John. Oral History Interview. 20 August 2003. ONP Archives. Oral Histories.
79 Olson, John. Oral History Interview. 20 August 2003. ONP Archives. Oral Histories.
80 Evans, Gail H. E. "Historic Resource Study of Olympic National Park." NPS Pacific Northwest Region Cultural Resources Division. 1983. ONP Archives.
81 Olson, Ignar. 1933. Quoted in Geerdes, Raymond. "Enchanted Valley and Its Chalet." 1954. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
82 Evans, Gail H. E. "Historic Resource Study of Olympic National Park." Page 303. NPS Pacific Northwest Region Cultural Resources Division. 1983. ONP Archives.
83 Evans, Gail H. E. "Historic Resource Study of Olympic National Park." Page 303. NPS Pacific Northwest Region Cultural Resources Division. 1983. ONP Archives.
84 Geerdes, Raymond. "Enchanted Valley and Its Chalet." 1954. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
85 Olympic Recreation Company. 14 March 1939. Quoted in Geerdes, Raymond. "Enchanted Valley and Its Chalet." 1954. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
86 Isne, John. "Our National Park Policy: A Critical History." Routledge. 2011. Pg. 391. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Files (unprocessed collection). Folder "Enchanted Valley Chalet."
87 Olson, Ignar. 11 April 1942. Quoted in Geerdes, Raymond. "Enchanted Valley and Its Chalet." 1954. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
88 Geerdes, Raymond. "Enchanted Valley and Its Chalet." 1954. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
89 ONP. "Backcountry Historic Structures Report." Page 12. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection.
90 Olson, Ignar. 21 August 1943. Quoted in Geerdes, Raymond. "Enchanted Valley and Its Chalet." 1954. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
91 Brown, Lloyde E. "Timberlines Region Six, 30 Years Club" July 1977 edition. Quoted in Rooney, Jack R. "Frontier Legacy: History of the Olympic National Forest 1897-1960." Northwest Interpretive Association, Seattle, Washington. 1997. Page 69.
92 Evans, Gail H. E. "Historic Resource Study of Olympic National Park." NPS Pacific Northwest Region Cultural Resources Division. 1983. ONP Archives.
93 Olson, John. Oral History Interview. 20 August 2003. ONP Archives. Oral Histories.
94 Olson, John. Oral History Interview. 2014. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection.
95 Rooney, Jack R. "Frontier Legacy: History of the Olympic National Forest 1897-1960." Northwest Interpretive Association, Seattle, Washington. 1997. Page 69.
96 Masters, D.A. "Certificate of Appraisal for Graves Creek Inn and Enchanted Valley Chalet". 20 September 1949. Document prepared for National Park Service. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
97 Olson, Elvin. Oral History Interview. 1975. ONP Archives. Oral Histories.
98 Webster, Dewey. 11 June 1951. Quoted in Geerdes, Raymond. "Enchanted Valley and Its Chalet." 1954. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
99 Geerdes, Raymond. "Enchanted Valley and Its Chalet." 1954. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
100 ONP. "Backcountry Historic Structures Report." Page 51. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection.
101 Overly, Fred J. June 1953. Quoted in Geerdes, Raymond. "Enchanted Valley and Its Chalet." 1954. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
102 Peting, Donald. "Historic Structures Preservation Guide, Part B" 17 July 1985. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
103 Dolstad, John Douglas. "An Analysis of the Status of a Volunteer Student Conservation Program Combing Education and Work Experience in Olympic National Park." Thesis for the degree of Master of Education. University of Washington. 1960. Page 23-24. ONP Archives. Paul Gleeson Collection. "Notebook on Enchanted Valley Chalet."
104 ONP. "Backcountry Historic Structures Report." Page 54. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection.
105 ONP. "Enchanted Valley Ranger Logbooks." 1960s-90s. ONP Archives. Acc No. OLYM-742. Cat No. 30455 and 30456.
106 Weimer, Carl. "Enchanted Valley Ranger Logbooks." June 1978. ONP Archives. Acc No. OLYM-742. Cat No. 30455 and 30456.
107 Weimer, Carl. "Enchanted Valley Ranger Logbooks." September 1976. ONP Archives. Acc No. OLYM-742. Cat No. 30455 and 30456.
108 Ibid. Pangratz, Carl M. "Enchanted Valley Ranger Logbooks." 1973. ONP Archives. Acc No. OLYM-742. Cat No. 30455 and 30456.
109 Doherty, Howard. "Enchanted Valley Ranger Logbooks." September 1971. ONP Archives. Acc No. OLYM-742. Cat No. 30455 and 30456.
110 ONP. "Draft Environmental Assessment for the Management of the Enchanted Valley Chalet." July 2006. Page 10. ONP Archives. Enchanted Valley Chalet HABS Collection.
111 ONP "Shelter Establishment Criteria." 4 January 1978. ONP Archives. OLYM-2340. Bibkey# 2172315.
112 Ibid. Doherty, Howard. "Enchanted Valley Ranger Logbooks." 1971. ONP Archives. Acc No. OLYM-742. Cat No. 30455 and 30456.
113 Holloway, David. "Enchanted Valley Ranger Logbooks." 1968. ONP Archives. Acc No. OLYM-742. Cat No. 30455 and 30456.
114 Durrwachter, Dale A. Message to ONP. 28 June 2004. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Files (unprocessed collection). Folder "Enchanted Valley Chalet."
115 Weimer, Carl. "Enchanted Valley Ranger Logbooks." September 1976. ONP Archives. Acc No. OLYM-742. Cat No. 30455 and 30456.
116 Leinman. "Enchanted Valley Ranger Logbooks." September 1975. ONP Archives. Acc No. OLYM-742. Cat No. 30455 and 30456.
117 Geerdes, Raymond. "Enchanted Valley and Its Chalet." 1954. ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
118 NPS. "Final Environmental Statement-Proposed Olympic Wilderness." 29 July 1974. Page 33. ONP Archives. Paul Gleeson Collection. "Notebook on Enchanted Valley Chalet."
119 NPS. "Final Environmental Statement. Proposed Master Plan, Olympic National Park, Washington." 30 June 1976. Page 86-87 ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.
120 NPS. "Final Environmental Statement. Proposed Master Plan, Olympic National Park, Washington." 30 June 1976. Page 93 ONP Archives. Historic Structures Reports. ACC. No. OLYM-731. Cat No. OLYM 16353. Box 3. Folder 10.

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